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28 Cards in this Set

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What properties are used to analyze fluids?
Intensive properties, such as:
1) density
2) pressure
T or F: All liquids and solids are totally incompressible
TRUE
Specific Gravity
SG = density(substance)/density(water)
Density of Water
1000 kg/m^3
OR
1 g/cm^3
Fluid Pressure
-Results from the impulse of molecular collisions

P = F/A
P = [Summation](density)*(g)*(depth of fluid)
A Fluid at Rest
Experiences forces only perpendicular to its surface
Atmospheric Pressure
101,000 Pa
Absolute Pressure
-Pressure measured relative to a vacuum as zero

P(abs) = P(gauge) + P(atm)
T or F: The shape of the container affects fluid pressure
FALSE, pressure is a function of depth
Pascal's Principle
Pressure applied anywhere to an enclosed incompressible fluid will be distributed undiminished throughout that fluid.
Bouyant Force
An upward force acting on a submerged object, and is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the submerged object.

F = (fluid density)*V*g
The floating Equation
The submerged fraction of a floating object is equal to the ratio of the density of the object to the density of the fluid in which it is floating. If the object is floating in water, this ratio is the specific gravity of the floating object:

Fraction submerged = density(floating object) / density(fluid)
T or F: The bouyant force does not change with depth
TRUE! (the bouyant force is due to the difference in pressure)
A fully submerged object displaces its __________ in fluid; a floating object displaces its _________ in fluid.
volume, weight
The two types of motion of the molecules of a moving fluid:
1) Random Translational Motion - contributes to fluid pressure as in a fluid at rest
2) Uniform Translational Motion - shared equally by all molecules at a given location in a fluid
Ideal Fluid
1) Has no viscosity (tendency to resist flow)
2) Incompressible
3) Lacks turbulence
4) Experience irrotational flow
Continuity Equation
Q = Av = volume flow rate

In an ideal fluid, this is constant (narrower the pipe, greater the velocity)
Bernoulli's Equation
-->
T or F: In an ideal fluid, as velocity increases, pressure increases
False: Pressure DECREASES
Where would the greatest velocity be in a real fluid flowing through a pipe?
At the center of the pipe, farthest away from the fluid-object interface.
In a real-fluid, the narrower the pipe, the _______ the effect of drag.
GREATER
In a horizontal pipe of constant cross-sectional area, fluid will flow from high pressure to low pressure according to:
dP = QR
Stress
The force applied to an object divided by the area over which the force is applied

Stress = F/A [in N/m^3]

"What is done to the object"
Strain
The fractional change in an object's shape. It is the ratio of change in dimension compared to original dimension

Strain = d[Dimension] / original dimension

"How the object responds to stress"
Modulus of elasticity
stress/strain
Young's Modulus
For tensile stress:

(F/A) / (dh/ho)
Shear Modulus
(F/A) / (dx/ho)
Bulk Modulus
(dP) / (dV/Vo)