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28 Cards in this Set
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What properties are used to analyze fluids?

Intensive properties, such as:
1) density 2) pressure 

T or F: All liquids and solids are totally incompressible

TRUE


Specific Gravity

SG = density(substance)/density(water)


Density of Water

1000 kg/m^3
OR 1 g/cm^3 

Fluid Pressure

Results from the impulse of molecular collisions
P = F/A P = [Summation](density)*(g)*(depth of fluid) 

A Fluid at Rest

Experiences forces only perpendicular to its surface


Atmospheric Pressure

101,000 Pa


Absolute Pressure

Pressure measured relative to a vacuum as zero
P(abs) = P(gauge) + P(atm) 

T or F: The shape of the container affects fluid pressure

FALSE, pressure is a function of depth


Pascal's Principle

Pressure applied anywhere to an enclosed incompressible fluid will be distributed undiminished throughout that fluid.


Bouyant Force

An upward force acting on a submerged object, and is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the submerged object.
F = (fluid density)*V*g 

The floating Equation

The submerged fraction of a floating object is equal to the ratio of the density of the object to the density of the fluid in which it is floating. If the object is floating in water, this ratio is the specific gravity of the floating object:
Fraction submerged = density(floating object) / density(fluid) 

T or F: The bouyant force does not change with depth

TRUE! (the bouyant force is due to the difference in pressure)


A fully submerged object displaces its __________ in fluid; a floating object displaces its _________ in fluid.

volume, weight


The two types of motion of the molecules of a moving fluid:

1) Random Translational Motion  contributes to fluid pressure as in a fluid at rest
2) Uniform Translational Motion  shared equally by all molecules at a given location in a fluid 

Ideal Fluid

1) Has no viscosity (tendency to resist flow)
2) Incompressible 3) Lacks turbulence 4) Experience irrotational flow 

Continuity Equation

Q = Av = volume flow rate
In an ideal fluid, this is constant (narrower the pipe, greater the velocity) 

Bernoulli's Equation

>


T or F: In an ideal fluid, as velocity increases, pressure increases

False: Pressure DECREASES


Where would the greatest velocity be in a real fluid flowing through a pipe?

At the center of the pipe, farthest away from the fluidobject interface.


In a realfluid, the narrower the pipe, the _______ the effect of drag.

GREATER


In a horizontal pipe of constant crosssectional area, fluid will flow from high pressure to low pressure according to:

dP = QR


Stress

The force applied to an object divided by the area over which the force is applied
Stress = F/A [in N/m^3] "What is done to the object" 

Strain

The fractional change in an object's shape. It is the ratio of change in dimension compared to original dimension
Strain = d[Dimension] / original dimension "How the object responds to stress" 

Modulus of elasticity

stress/strain


Young's Modulus

For tensile stress:
(F/A) / (dh/ho) 

Shear Modulus

(F/A) / (dx/ho)


Bulk Modulus

(dP) / (dV/Vo)
