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35 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
angular displacement

angle through which a rigid object rotates about a fixed axis
counterclockwise = postive clockwise = negative 

Revolution

one complete turn of 360 degrees
1 rev = 2(pie) rad 

uniform circular motion

constant tangential speed which is magnitude of tangential velocity
tangential quantities describe motion of single point on object 

Torque

net external torque causes the rotational velocity to change
greater torque causes greater angular acceleration positive: F produces counterclockwise rotation about axis 

Rigid Objects in Equilibrium

neither translational (linear) nor rotational motion changes
translational and angular acceleration are zero F = 0 and t = 0 

Center of Gravity

point on rigid object at which its weight can be considered to act when the torque due to w is being considered
symmetric object with uniform weight has cg at geometerical center 

Center of Gravity for a group of objects

change in weight distribution of a group causes a change in position of cg which if too great results in the group not remaining in equilibrium


Moment of Inertia

further particle is from axis of rotation, greater the contribution to inertia
rigid body does not have an unique moment of inertia 

Ideal Spring

for small displacements, force applied required to stretch or compress a spring is directly proportional to the displacement x


Spring Constant (k)

stiffness of spring
large k means the spring is stiff in that a large F is required to stretch or compress it k is inversely proportional to the number of coils in the spring (shorter springs are stiffer springs) 

Reaction Force

restoring force
applied to the object the spring is attached to always points in a direction opposite to the displacement of the spring and leads to a backandforth motion of the object 

Simple Harmonic Motion

when restoring force has equation F = kx
when move one revolution or cycle around reference circle execute one cycle of backandforth motion 

Amplitude (A)

maximum excursion from equilibrium
radius A is amplitude in reference circle constant in SHM because no mechanism for dissipating energry 

Period (T)

time required to complete one cycle
depends on w shorter w = shorter time to complete one revoluion 

Velocity

not constant (varies bwt max and min values)
zero when change direction at either end of oscillatory motion max when x = 0 (midpoint) 

Acceleration

must have accerleration since velocity is changing
max acceleration occurs when displacement is greatest because the force acting on the object is a maximum 

Frequency of vibration

assuming mass of spring is negligible, only force acting on object in horizontal direction is due to spring (restoring force)
mass increases, frequency of simple harmonic motion increases 

Elastic Potentional Energy

due to elastic PE a stretched or compressed spring can do work on an object that is attached to the spring
when a door is opened, a spring inside the unit is compressed and has elastic PE when the door is released, the compressed spring expands and does the work of closing the door (uses stored elastic PE) 

Values of Elastic PE

max for a fully stretched or compressed spring
zero for a spring that is neither compressed nor stretched 

Simple Harmonic Motion and TwoBox System: maximum speed

max speed at x = 0 (object is passing through point where spring is unstrained
max speed of twobox system is same as one box since second box is attached at x = 0 and has same speed 

SHM and TwoBox system: Kinetic Energy

at the same speed, the KE of the two box system is twice that of the singel box system since the mass is twice


SHM and 2 box system: Elastic Potential Energy

since have twice KE, will have twice the elastic PE when comes to halt


SHM and 2 box system: Amplitude

two box system has greater amplitude by factor of square root of 2


SHM and 2 box system: angular frequency

two box system has smaller angular frequency by a factor of square root of 2


Simple Pendulum

gravity is responsible for back and forth rotation
rotation speeds up as the particle approaches lowest point on arc and slows down on upward part of swing net torque is required to change angular speed small angular displacement then swinging is approx SHM 

Physical Pendulum

moment of ineria is proper value for rigid object


Damped Harmonic Motion

decrease in amplitude
presence of energy dissipation as increase degree of damping, fewer oscillations 

Damping and cars

shock absorber is designed to introduce a damping force which reduces the vibration associated with a bumpy ride


Critical Damping

smallest degree of damping that completely eliminates the oscillation (settle back to equilibrium)
motion is said to be critically damped when above value, takes longest time to return to equilibrium 

Driven Harmonic Motion

amplitude increases
energy is added to oscillating system additional force added is driving force (controls behavior 

Resonance

large amplitude motion even if relatively weak force
occurs when frequency of driving force matches a frequency at which the object naturally vibrates  

Young's modulus

material with greater Y undergoes smaller change in length
refers to change in length of one dimension of a solid object as a result of tensile or compressive force 

Tensile Force

perpendicular to surface whose area is A
elastic deformation 

shear force

parallel to surface whose area is A


Shear modulus

refers to change in shape of a solid object as a result of shearing force
