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### 35 Cards in this Set

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 angular displacement -angle through which a rigid object rotates about a fixed axis -counterclockwise = postive -clockwise = negative Revolution -one complete turn of 360 degrees -1 rev = 2(pie) rad uniform circular motion -constant tangential speed which is magnitude of tangential velocity -tangential quantities describe motion of single point on object Torque -net external torque causes the rotational velocity to change -greater torque causes greater angular acceleration -positive: F produces counterclockwise rotation about axis Rigid Objects in Equilibrium -neither translational (linear) nor rotational motion changes -translational and angular acceleration are zero F = 0 and t = 0 Center of Gravity -point on rigid object at which its weight can be considered to act when the torque due to w is being considered -symmetric object with uniform weight has cg at geometerical center Center of Gravity for a group of objects -change in weight distribution of a group causes a change in position of cg which if too great results in the group not remaining in equilibrium Moment of Inertia -further particle is from axis of rotation, greater the contribution to inertia -rigid body does not have an unique moment of inertia Ideal Spring -for small displacements, force applied required to stretch or compress a spring is directly proportional to the displacement x Spring Constant (k) -stiffness of spring -large k means the spring is stiff in that a large F is required to stretch or compress it -k is inversely proportional to the number of coils in the spring (shorter springs are stiffer springs) Reaction Force -restoring force -applied to the object the spring is attached to -always points in a direction opposite to the displacement of the spring and leads to a back-and-forth motion of the object Simple Harmonic Motion -when restoring force has equation F = -kx -when move one revolution or cycle around reference circle execute one cycle of back-and-forth motion Amplitude (A) -maximum excursion from equilibrium -radius A is amplitude in reference circle -constant in SHM because no mechanism for dissipating energry Period (T) -time required to complete one cycle -depends on w -shorter w = shorter time to complete one revoluion Velocity -not constant (varies bwt max and min values) -zero when change direction at either end of oscillatory motion -max when x = 0 (midpoint) Acceleration -must have accerleration since velocity is changing -max acceleration occurs when displacement is greatest because the force acting on the object is a maximum Frequency of vibration -assuming mass of spring is negligible, only force acting on object in horizontal direction is due to spring (restoring force) -mass increases, frequency of simple harmonic motion increases Elastic Potentional Energy -due to elastic PE a stretched or compressed spring can do work on an object that is attached to the spring -when a door is opened, a spring inside the unit is compressed and has elastic PE -when the door is released, the compressed spring expands and does the work of closing the door (uses stored elastic PE) Values of Elastic PE -max for a fully stretched or compressed spring -zero for a spring that is neither compressed nor stretched Simple Harmonic Motion and Two-Box System: maximum speed -max speed at x = 0 (object is passing through point where spring is unstrained -max speed of two-box system is same as one box since second box is attached at x = 0 and has same speed SHM and Two-Box system: Kinetic Energy -at the same speed, the KE of the two box system is twice that of the singel box system since the mass is twice SHM and 2 box system: Elastic Potential Energy -since have twice KE, will have twice the elastic PE when comes to halt SHM and 2 box system: Amplitude -two box system has greater amplitude by factor of square root of 2 SHM and 2 box system: angular frequency -two box system has smaller angular frequency by a factor of square root of 2 Simple Pendulum -gravity is responsible for back and forth rotation -rotation speeds up as the particle approaches lowest point on arc and slows down on upward part of swing -net torque is required to change angular speed -small angular displacement then swinging is approx SHM Physical Pendulum -moment of ineria is proper value for rigid object Damped Harmonic Motion -decrease in amplitude -presence of energy dissipation -as increase degree of damping, fewer oscillations Damping and cars -shock absorber is designed to introduce a damping force which reduces the vibration associated with a bumpy ride Critical Damping -smallest degree of damping that completely eliminates the oscillation (settle back to equilibrium) -motion is said to be critically damped -when above value, takes longest time to return to equilibrium Driven Harmonic Motion -amplitude increases -energy is added to oscillating system -additional force added is driving force (controls behavior Resonance -large amplitude motion even if relatively weak force -occurs when frequency of driving force matches a frequency at which the object naturally vibrates - Young's modulus material with greater Y undergoes smaller change in length -refers to change in length of one dimension of a solid object as a result of tensile or compressive force Tensile Force perpendicular to surface whose area is A -elastic deformation shear force parallel to surface whose area is A Shear modulus refers to change in shape of a solid object as a result of shearing force