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 v = final velocity x = displacement u = initial velocity a = acceleration t = time v = v = u + at x = x = ut + 1/2(at^2) v^2 = v^2 = u^2 + 2ax average velocity = x/t = (v+u)/2 Acceleration of freefall, at this latitude: 9.81 m s^-2 Newton's first law: 'Every object remains at rest or continues with constant velocity unless acted upon by a resultant force.' gravitational field strength at sea level: 9.81 N kg^-1 Mathematical version of Newton's Second law: F = ma (F = resultant force (if a forward and back force, take back from forward to get resultant.)) Free-body force diagram: shows all the forces acting on the object whose motion is to be analysed. momentum equation momentum = mass x velocity (p = mv). Momentum is a vector quantity. Newton's Second law: The momentum change per unit time of an object is equal to the resultant force acting on that object. rate of change of momentum = resultant force Newtons second law formula: F = (delta(mv))/(delta t) impulse = force x time for which the force acts (newton's second law rearranged to F deltat = delta(mv)) force vs time graphs - full area under curve = total momentum change of the ball = total impulse applied to the ball PCM The PRINCIPLE OF CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM: 'If no external force acts on a system, then the total momentum of the system remains constant.' Newton's Third Law: 'If body A exerts a foce on body B, the B exert an equal but opposite force on A' The first force: 1. Gravity. The dominant force in the universe for shaping the large scale structure of galaxies and stars. The second force: 2. The strong nuclear force: Holds neutrons and protons together inside the nucleus. The third force: 3. The weak nuclear force: Involved in radioactivity. The fourth force: 4. The Electromagnetic force: Responsible for attractive and repulsive forces between atoms and is involved in each of the following: i) Air resistance ii) Contact forces iii) Friction The kinematic equations for a body moving in a straight line with uniform acceleration are: (4) v = u + at s = ut + 1/2(at^2) v^2 = u^2 + 2as v with line over = (u+v)/2 The gradient of a displacement-time graph gives... the velocity of a particle the gradient of a velocity-time graph gives... the area between a velocity-time grpah and the time axis gives... the acceleration of a particle. the displacement. How is the motion of projectiles analysed? In terms of two independant motions at right angles. Horizontal component = constant velocity. Vertical is subject to constant acceleration