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65 Cards in this Set

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 Distance how far you have traveled (scalar) Displacement How far you are from a certain point in a given direction (vector) Velocity rate of change of displacement (vector) Average Velocity – displacement/time Speed distance/time (scalar) Acceleration the rate of change of velocity Average acceleration – change in velocity/time Force can change the shape, speed, or direction of an object Hooke's Law The extension of a spring is proportional to the stretching force up to a point called the proportional limit a. F= -kx Newton's First Law Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform speed in a straight line unless acted on by a non-zero net force a. Inertia Translational Equilibrium a body has no unbalanced force acting on it Newton's Second Law An object’s acceleration is directly proportional to the net force acting on it and is universally proportional to its mass. The direction of the acceleration is in the direction of the net force acting on the object a. F=ma Newton's Third Law Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second exerts an equal and opposite force on the first Weight The force that gravity exerts on an object. (vector, Newtons) a. W=mg Mass : Amount of matter (scalar, Kg) Conservation of Momentum total momentum of an isolated system of bodies remains constant (momentum of the system is conserved) a. P=mv Impulse a. Ft=mv b. Force is rate of change of momentum Joule One joule is the amount of work done when a force of 1 Newton acts over a distance of 1 meter (1J = 1Nm) Energy The Ability to do Work Work done when the point of application of a force moves (scalar) a. W=Fs Elastic Potential Energy : in a stretched spring Potential Energy Energy a body has due to its position or state a. PE=1/2 kx2 Gravitational Potential Energy depends on position in a gravitational field a. PE=mgh Kinetic Energy energy due to motion a. KE=1/2mv2 Ellastic Energy If kinetic energy is conserved Principal of Conservation of Energy Total amount of mechanical energy in a system remains constant Power rate of the conversion of energy (watt 1W = 1 J/s) a. P=W/t Gravitational Mass Different masses have different gravitational forces acting between them Inertial Mass Different masses have different accelerations when a force acts on them Temperature measure of the average kinetic energy of each molecule Heat energy transferred due to a temperature difference; flow of energy Internal Energy total kinetic energy (translational/rotational movement of molecules) and potential energy (forces between molecules) U=KE+PE Conduction Transfer of vibrations due to the collision of particles (all states) Convection heat expands material and it becomes less dense. It rises and other fluids take its place. (liquids & gases) Radiation Heat transferred by electromagnetic waves are very similar to light waves (infa red) (EM Waves) Specific Heat Capacity Measure of the heat energy required to raise the temperature of a given mass of a specific substance by one degree in temperature Change of State molecules gain more thermal energy a. Molecules gain kinetic energy b. Substance changes state potential energy changes Sublimation changing from a solid to a gas Specific Latent Heat of Fusion of a substance is heat needed to change 1 kg of a substance from a solid to a liquid Specific Latent Heat of Vaporization of a substance is heat needed to change 1 kg of a substance from a liquid to a gas Evaporation molecules close to the surface with enough kinetic energy break free from the surface intermolecular bonds will go into the surrounding air to form a low temperature gas or vapor. Average kinetic energy of the remaining liquid molecules is reduced and so the liquid cools. Boyle's Law If the temperature is constant, the pressure and volume are inversely proportional Pressure Law As long as the volume is constant, the pressure and the temperature (K) are directly proportional Charles Law As long as the pressure is constant, the temperature and volume are directly proportional Mole amount of substance that contains as many elementary units as there are atoms in 0.012 kg of the isotope carbon – 12 Molar Mass mass of 1 mol of the substance Avagadro's Constant number of molecules in one mole of a susbstance Transverse Waves vibrations take place at a right angle to the direction of energy transfer Longitudinal Wave vibrations take place in the same direction as the energy transfer Period Time required for one complete cycle a. Period = 1/f Fequency number of crests that pass a particular point per unit time/Hz Wavelength distance between two successive crests, troughs, Displacement/Position Graph Shows displacement of all particles at one instant, like a picture of the wave Thin--> Dense Medium some is reflected & flipped and some is rarefracted Angle of Incident degrees between divisor of mediums and direction of wave When waves enter a more dense medium their speed _______, they bend ______ the normal, the wavelength _____, and the frequency ______ ______. decreases, towards, increases, stays the same Diffraction waves bending around objects placed in their path 23. Longer wavelengths diffract _____ than shorter ones More Huygen's Principle every point on a wave can be regarded as a secondary wavelet which spreads out with the same velocity a. Prove through congruent triangles for i = r A superposition of an infinite number of these wavelets gives us the next wave front (or the tangent to all of the tiny circular wave fronts is the next wave front) Critical Angle Where refraction is 90 degrees Doppler Effect When the source of sound is moving, the frequency will sound different If source is moving towards you the frequency is Higher Red Shift wavelength gets longer, stars are moving away from us Fundamental Node node on sides and anti-node in the middle, l =1/2 wavelength Second Harmonic 3 nodes, frequency is 2 times, l=wavelength Third Harmonic 4 nodes, 2wavelength/3, frequency is 3 times Resonance when the driving frequency is the same as the natural frequency of vibration of an object