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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
how far you have traveled (scalar)
How far you are from a certain point in a given direction (vector)
rate of change of displacement (vector)
Average Velocity – displacement/time
distance/time (scalar)
the rate of change of velocity
Average acceleration – change in velocity/time
can change the shape, speed, or direction of an object
Hooke's Law
The extension of a spring is proportional to the stretching force up to a point called the proportional limit
a. F= -kx
Newton's First Law
Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform speed in a straight line unless acted on by a non-zero net force
a. Inertia
Translational Equilibrium
a body has no unbalanced force acting on it
Newton's Second Law
An object’s acceleration is directly proportional to the net force acting on it and is universally proportional to its mass. The direction of the acceleration is in the direction of the net force acting on the object
a. F=ma
Newton's Third Law
Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second exerts an equal and opposite force on the first
The force that gravity exerts on an object. (vector, Newtons)
a. W=mg
: Amount of matter (scalar, Kg)
Conservation of Momentum
total momentum of an isolated system of bodies remains constant (momentum of the system is conserved)
a. P=mv
a. Ft=mv
b. Force is rate of change of momentum
One joule is the amount of work done when a force of 1 Newton acts over a distance of 1 meter (1J = 1Nm)
The Ability to do Work
done when the point of application of a force moves (scalar)
a. W=Fs
Elastic Potential Energy
: in a stretched spring
Potential Energy
Energy a body has due to its position or state
a. PE=1/2 kx2
Gravitational Potential Energy
depends on position in a gravitational field
a. PE=mgh
Kinetic Energy
energy due to motion
a. KE=1/2mv2
Ellastic Energy
If kinetic energy is conserved
Principal of Conservation of Energy
Total amount of mechanical energy in a system remains constant
rate of the conversion of energy (watt 1W = 1 J/s)
a. P=W/t
Gravitational Mass
Different masses have different gravitational forces acting between them
Inertial Mass
Different masses have different accelerations when a force acts on them
measure of the average kinetic energy of each molecule
energy transferred due to a temperature difference; flow of energy
Internal Energy
total kinetic energy (translational/rotational movement of molecules) and potential energy (forces between molecules) U=KE+PE
Transfer of vibrations due to the collision of particles (all states)
heat expands material and it becomes less dense. It rises and other fluids take its place. (liquids & gases)
Heat transferred by electromagnetic waves are very similar to light waves (infa red) (EM Waves)
Specific Heat Capacity
Measure of the heat energy required to raise the temperature of a given mass of a specific substance by one degree in temperature
Change of State
molecules gain more thermal energy
a. Molecules gain kinetic energy
b. Substance changes state potential energy changes
changing from a solid to a gas
Specific Latent Heat of Fusion
of a substance is heat needed to change 1 kg of a substance from a solid to a liquid
Specific Latent Heat of Vaporization
of a substance is heat needed to change 1 kg of a substance from a liquid to a gas
molecules close to the surface with enough kinetic energy break free from the surface intermolecular bonds will go into the surrounding air to form a low temperature gas or vapor. Average kinetic energy of the remaining liquid molecules is reduced and so the liquid cools.
Boyle's Law
If the temperature is constant, the pressure and volume are inversely proportional
Pressure Law
As long as the volume is constant, the pressure and the temperature (K) are directly proportional
Charles Law
As long as the pressure is constant, the temperature and volume are directly proportional
amount of substance that contains as many elementary units as there are atoms in 0.012 kg of the isotope carbon – 12
Molar Mass
mass of 1 mol of the substance
Avagadro's Constant
number of molecules in one mole of a susbstance
Transverse Waves
vibrations take place at a right angle to the direction of energy transfer
Longitudinal Wave
vibrations take place in the same direction as the energy transfer
Time required for one complete cycle
a. Period = 1/f
number of crests that pass a particular point per unit time/Hz
distance between two successive crests, troughs,
Displacement/Position Graph Shows
displacement of all particles at one instant, like a picture of the wave
Thin--> Dense Medium
some is reflected & flipped and some is rarefracted
Angle of Incident
degrees between divisor of mediums and direction of wave
When waves enter a more dense medium their speed _______, they bend ______ the normal, the wavelength _____, and the frequency ______ ______.
decreases, towards, increases, stays the same
waves bending around objects placed in their path
23. Longer wavelengths diffract _____ than shorter ones
Huygen's Principle
every point on a wave can be regarded as a secondary wavelet which spreads out with the same velocity
a. Prove through congruent triangles for i = r
A superposition of an infinite number of these wavelets gives us the next wave front (or the tangent to all of the tiny circular wave fronts is the next wave front)
Critical Angle
Where refraction is 90 degrees
Doppler Effect
When the source of sound is moving, the frequency will sound different
If source is moving towards you the frequency is
Red Shift
wavelength gets longer, stars are moving away from us
Fundamental Node
node on sides and anti-node in the middle, l =1/2 wavelength
Second Harmonic
3 nodes, frequency is 2 times, l=wavelength
Third Harmonic
4 nodes, 2wavelength/3, frequency is 3 times
when the driving frequency is the same as the natural frequency of vibration of an object