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65 Cards in this Set
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 Back
Distance

how far you have traveled (scalar)


Displacement

How far you are from a certain point in a given direction (vector)


Velocity

rate of change of displacement (vector)
Average Velocity – displacement/time 

Speed

distance/time (scalar)


Acceleration

the rate of change of velocity
Average acceleration – change in velocity/time 

Force

can change the shape, speed, or direction of an object


Hooke's Law

The extension of a spring is proportional to the stretching force up to a point called the proportional limit
a. F= kx 

Newton's First Law

Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform speed in a straight line unless acted on by a nonzero net force
a. Inertia 

Translational Equilibrium

a body has no unbalanced force acting on it


Newton's Second Law

An object’s acceleration is directly proportional to the net force acting on it and is universally proportional to its mass. The direction of the acceleration is in the direction of the net force acting on the object
a. F=ma 

Newton's Third Law

Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second exerts an equal and opposite force on the first


Weight

The force that gravity exerts on an object. (vector, Newtons)
a. W=mg 

Mass

: Amount of matter (scalar, Kg)


Conservation of Momentum

total momentum of an isolated system of bodies remains constant (momentum of the system is conserved)
a. P=mv 

Impulse

a. Ft=mv
b. Force is rate of change of momentum 

Joule

One joule is the amount of work done when a force of 1 Newton acts over a distance of 1 meter (1J = 1Nm)


Energy

The Ability to do Work


Work

done when the point of application of a force moves (scalar)
a. W=Fs 

Elastic Potential Energy

: in a stretched spring


Potential Energy

Energy a body has due to its position or state
a. PE=1/2 kx2 

Gravitational Potential Energy

depends on position in a gravitational field
a. PE=mgh 

Kinetic Energy

energy due to motion
a. KE=1/2mv2 

Ellastic Energy

If kinetic energy is conserved


Principal of Conservation of Energy

Total amount of mechanical energy in a system remains constant


Power

rate of the conversion of energy (watt 1W = 1 J/s)
a. P=W/t 

Gravitational Mass

Different masses have different gravitational forces acting between them


Inertial Mass

Different masses have different accelerations when a force acts on them


Temperature

measure of the average kinetic energy of each molecule


Heat

energy transferred due to a temperature difference; flow of energy


Internal Energy

total kinetic energy (translational/rotational movement of molecules) and potential energy (forces between molecules) U=KE+PE


Conduction

Transfer of vibrations due to the collision of particles (all states)


Convection

heat expands material and it becomes less dense. It rises and other fluids take its place. (liquids & gases)


Radiation

Heat transferred by electromagnetic waves are very similar to light waves (infa red) (EM Waves)


Specific Heat Capacity

Measure of the heat energy required to raise the temperature of a given mass of a specific substance by one degree in temperature


Change of State

molecules gain more thermal energy
a. Molecules gain kinetic energy b. Substance changes state potential energy changes 

Sublimation

changing from a solid to a gas


Specific Latent Heat of Fusion

of a substance is heat needed to change 1 kg of a substance from a solid to a liquid


Specific Latent Heat of Vaporization

of a substance is heat needed to change 1 kg of a substance from a liquid to a gas


Evaporation

molecules close to the surface with enough kinetic energy break free from the surface intermolecular bonds will go into the surrounding air to form a low temperature gas or vapor. Average kinetic energy of the remaining liquid molecules is reduced and so the liquid cools.


Boyle's Law

If the temperature is constant, the pressure and volume are inversely proportional


Pressure Law

As long as the volume is constant, the pressure and the temperature (K) are directly proportional


Charles Law

As long as the pressure is constant, the temperature and volume are directly proportional


Mole

amount of substance that contains as many elementary units as there are atoms in 0.012 kg of the isotope carbon – 12


Molar Mass

mass of 1 mol of the substance


Avagadro's Constant

number of molecules in one mole of a susbstance


Transverse Waves

vibrations take place at a right angle to the direction of energy transfer


Longitudinal Wave

vibrations take place in the same direction as the energy transfer


Period

Time required for one complete cycle
a. Period = 1/f 

Fequency

number of crests that pass a particular point per unit time/Hz


Wavelength

distance between two successive crests, troughs,


Displacement/Position Graph Shows

displacement of all particles at one instant, like a picture of the wave


Thin> Dense Medium

some is reflected & flipped and some is rarefracted


Angle of Incident

degrees between divisor of mediums and direction of wave


When waves enter a more dense medium their speed _______, they bend ______ the normal, the wavelength _____, and the frequency ______ ______.

decreases, towards, increases, stays the same


Diffraction

waves bending around objects placed in their path


23. Longer wavelengths diffract _____ than shorter ones

More


Huygen's Principle

every point on a wave can be regarded as a secondary wavelet which spreads out with the same velocity
a. Prove through congruent triangles for i = r A superposition of an infinite number of these wavelets gives us the next wave front (or the tangent to all of the tiny circular wave fronts is the next wave front) 

Critical Angle

Where refraction is 90 degrees


Doppler Effect

When the source of sound is moving, the frequency will sound different


If source is moving towards you the frequency is

Higher


Red Shift

wavelength gets longer, stars are moving away from us


Fundamental Node

node on sides and antinode in the middle, l =1/2 wavelength


Second Harmonic

3 nodes, frequency is 2 times, l=wavelength


Third Harmonic

4 nodes, 2wavelength/3, frequency is 3 times


Resonance

when the driving frequency is the same as the natural frequency of vibration of an object
