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46 Cards in this Set

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Mechanics
study of motion and its causes (ex. falling objects)
Thermodynamics
study of heat and temperature (ex. melting and freezing)
Vibrations and Waves
study of specific types of REPETITIVE motions (ex. springs)
Optics
study of light (mirrors, lens)
Optics
Study of light (ex. mirrors, lenses, color)
Electromagnetism
Study of electricity, magnetism, and light (ex. electrical charge, circuits)
Relativity
Study of particles moving at any speed (ex. particle collisions, nuclear energy)
Quantum mechanics
Study of submicroscopic particles (ex. atom and its parts)
Scientific method
The procedure for good scientific investigations
Scientific method step 1
make observations and collect data that lead to a question
Scientific method step 2
Formulate and objectively test hypotheses
Scientific method step 3
Interpret results and revise the hypotheses if necessary
Scientific method step 4
State conclusions
Model
a replica or description designed to show the structure or workings of an object, system, or concept
System
a set of items or interactions considered a distinct physical entity for the purspose of study
What do models do?
Simply the problem to help build understanding, hypotheses, and design of experiments
Dimension
a description of WHAT KIND of physical quantity is represented by a measurment (ex. length, mass, time)
Units
a description of HOW MUCH of a physical quantity is represented by a measurment (ex. meters, kilograms, seconds)
What is SI?
its the standard measurement system, "Systeme International"
How many base units in SI?
Seven - first three are length, mass, time
What are Derived units?
Measurements that COMBINE the base units (ex. speed is m/s and Newton is kg x m/s2)
atto-
10 to the minus 18 (symbol a)
femto-
10 to the minus 15 (symbol f)
pico-
10 to the minus 12 (symbol p)
nano-
10 to the minus 9 (symbol n)
micro-
10 to the minus 6 (symbol greek mu)
milli-
10 to the minus 3 (symbol m)
centi-
10 to the minus 2 (symbol c)
deci-
10 to the minus 1 (symbol d)
deka-
10 to the plus 1 (symbol da)
kilo-
10 to the plus 3 (symbol k)
mega-
10 to the plus 6 (symbol M)
giga-
10 to the plus 9 (symbol G)
tera-
10 to the plus 12 (symbol T)
peta-
10 to the plus 15 (symbol P)
exa-
10 to the plus 18 (symbol E)
accuracy
describes how close a measured value is to the TRUE value of the quantity
precision
refers to the degree of exactness with which a measurement is made and stated
What are the two problems that limit accuracy?
Method error (different methods are used) and instrument error (instrument is not in good working order)
What are significant figures?
those digits in a measurement that are known with certainty plus the first digit that is uncertain
Sig. Figures rules for zeros
Significant if (1) between nonzero # (2) at end of #; not Sig. if (1) zero in front of # (2)zeros at end of # and left of decimal
Rules for calculating Sig. Figures
add/subtract (same as smallest # to right of decimal); multiply/divide (same as smallest # oof sig. figures)
Rounding Rules
Down if (below 5 or 5 with zeros after); Up if (above 5 or 5 with nonzeros)
Greek letter for "difference or change in"
delta (the triangle)
Greek letter for "sum or total"
Sigma (the funny E)
Dimensional Analysis
dimensions can be treated as algebraic quantities (add, subtract, divide (cancel), multiply (gives exponents)