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### 46 Cards in this Set

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 Mechanics study of motion and its causes (ex. falling objects) Thermodynamics study of heat and temperature (ex. melting and freezing) Vibrations and Waves study of specific types of REPETITIVE motions (ex. springs) Optics study of light (mirrors, lens) Optics Study of light (ex. mirrors, lenses, color) Electromagnetism Study of electricity, magnetism, and light (ex. electrical charge, circuits) Relativity Study of particles moving at any speed (ex. particle collisions, nuclear energy) Quantum mechanics Study of submicroscopic particles (ex. atom and its parts) Scientific method The procedure for good scientific investigations Scientific method step 1 make observations and collect data that lead to a question Scientific method step 2 Formulate and objectively test hypotheses Scientific method step 3 Interpret results and revise the hypotheses if necessary Scientific method step 4 State conclusions Model a replica or description designed to show the structure or workings of an object, system, or concept System a set of items or interactions considered a distinct physical entity for the purspose of study What do models do? Simply the problem to help build understanding, hypotheses, and design of experiments Dimension a description of WHAT KIND of physical quantity is represented by a measurment (ex. length, mass, time) Units a description of HOW MUCH of a physical quantity is represented by a measurment (ex. meters, kilograms, seconds) What is SI? its the standard measurement system, "Systeme International" How many base units in SI? Seven - first three are length, mass, time What are Derived units? Measurements that COMBINE the base units (ex. speed is m/s and Newton is kg x m/s2) atto- 10 to the minus 18 (symbol a) femto- 10 to the minus 15 (symbol f) pico- 10 to the minus 12 (symbol p) nano- 10 to the minus 9 (symbol n) micro- 10 to the minus 6 (symbol greek mu) milli- 10 to the minus 3 (symbol m) centi- 10 to the minus 2 (symbol c) deci- 10 to the minus 1 (symbol d) deka- 10 to the plus 1 (symbol da) kilo- 10 to the plus 3 (symbol k) mega- 10 to the plus 6 (symbol M) giga- 10 to the plus 9 (symbol G) tera- 10 to the plus 12 (symbol T) peta- 10 to the plus 15 (symbol P) exa- 10 to the plus 18 (symbol E) accuracy describes how close a measured value is to the TRUE value of the quantity precision refers to the degree of exactness with which a measurement is made and stated What are the two problems that limit accuracy? Method error (different methods are used) and instrument error (instrument is not in good working order) What are significant figures? those digits in a measurement that are known with certainty plus the first digit that is uncertain Sig. Figures rules for zeros Significant if (1) between nonzero # (2) at end of #; not Sig. if (1) zero in front of # (2)zeros at end of # and left of decimal Rules for calculating Sig. Figures add/subtract (same as smallest # to right of decimal); multiply/divide (same as smallest # oof sig. figures) Rounding Rules Down if (below 5 or 5 with zeros after); Up if (above 5 or 5 with nonzeros) Greek letter for "difference or change in" delta (the triangle) Greek letter for "sum or total" Sigma (the funny E) Dimensional Analysis dimensions can be treated as algebraic quantities (add, subtract, divide (cancel), multiply (gives exponents)