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36 Cards in this Set

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The total energy of all its atoms and molecules in a substance. It consistsof both the potention and kinetic.
Thermal energy
Lowest temp possible
absolute zero (-273degrees kelvins)
Thermal energy transferred from one substance to another due to a temperature difference between two substances
heat
Amount of heat needed to change the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1°C
calorie
first law of thermodynamics
when heat flows in or out of a system, the gain or loss of thermal energy equals the amount of heat transferred
second law of thermodynamics
heat never spontaneously flows from a cold substance to a hot substance
third law of thermodynamics
no system can reach absolute zero
what is: the quantity of heat required to change the temp of a unit of mass of the substance by 1 degree?
specific heat capacity
What is it when: molecules in a hot substance jiggle faster and move farther apart. for example: telephone wires sag and are longer more on hot days that on cold days
thermal expansion
at what temp is water
the densest?
4 degrees celsius
in the fahrenheit scales.... at what temp does water freeze and at what temp does water melt?
it freezes at 32 and freezes 212
a material that is made up of only one type of atom is classified as a(n) ______
element
all the elements listed in a chart called the _______ _________
period table
each element is designated by its _________ _______, which comes from the letters of the element's name. For example, the _______ ______for carbon is derived from the element's latin name.
atomic symbol
protons and neutrons are bound together at the atom's center to form a larger particle known as what?
atomic nucleus
the nucleus is a relatively heavy particle and contains most of an atom's mass. Surround the nucleus are tiny _________s
electrions.
a ________ is a particle in the atomic nucleus and which carries a positive charge.
Proton, which which is nearly 2000times as massive as an electron
each element is identified by its ______ _________. This is the number of protons contained in each atomic nucleus.
atomic number
the _______ is a nuclear particle with about the same mass as the proton, but with no electric charge.
neutron
both protons and neutrons are called ________, a term that states their locations in the atomic nucleus.
nucleons
atoms of the same element that contain different number of neutrons are known as what?
isotopes
mass number - atomic number = ?
number of neutrons
what is the total mass of an atom called?
atomic mass
_________ are defined as those elements that are shiny, opaque, and good conductorys of electricity and heat.
Metals
what has both metallic and nonmetallic characteristics. For example, these things are weak conductors of electricity. this makes them useful as semiconductors in the integrated circuits of computers.
metalloids (boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, tin, antimony)
a horizontal row in the periodic table of elements
period
a vertical column in the periodic table of elements
group
________ are poor conductors of electricity and heat, and they may be transparent. ________ are neith malleable nor ductile, rather, they are brittle and shatter when hammered
nonmetals
across any period, the properties of elements gradually change. What is this gradual change called?
periodic trend
a very small or very large object that can be seen with microscopes, telescopes, or other viewing instruments can be represented with a _____________ ___________
physical model
a __________ _________ is an explanation that treats what is being explained as a system. In a system, it is the interactions among component parts that matter most; knowing or seeing the parts themselves does not provide the understanding we are looking for.
Conceptual model
A__________ is an instrument used to observe the color components of any light source.
spectroscope
the patter of frequencies formed by a given element is referred to as the element's _________ ________
atomic spectrum
light travels as a wave, but strikes as a partic. The __________ _________ states that beam of light is not a continuous train of waves, but is a stream of zillions of discrete particles.
Quantum hypothesis
what is a particle of light called?
photon
A __________ is the smallest unit of something
quantum