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51 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
System

amount of matter enclosed by boundaries and surfaces
described by P, V, T 

Heat resevoir

Large seperate system with unlimited heat capacity; heat entering/leaving system comes from or goes to it


State

specific combination of variables P,V,T


Equation of State

Relates the state variables


Process

A change in the system or state variables


Zeroth law

if T1=T2 and T2=T3 then T1=T3


First Law

Conservation of Energy
Q = /_\U + W 

When heat enters system

Temp increases, change in U is positive


If w positive

System does work


If w negative

System is worked upon


Heat leaves

temp decreases, delta U is negative


Work done

area under the curve


Isothermic

Change done under constant temperature; delta U = 0 so
Q = W 

Isobaric

Change done under constant pressure
W = p*deltaV 

Isometric

Change done under constant volume
W=0; Q = deltaU 

Adiabatic

No heat transfered in or out
Q=0 so W = deltaU (steeper than isotherm) 

entrophy

measure of disorder


reversible process

a system returns to its initial state by tracing its initial process backwards


Second law

heat will not flow spontaneously from a cold object to a hot object
all natural processes move to a state of higher disarray 

Engines and pumps as relates to the first law

Total heat input = total heat output (and work)


Heat engine

converts heat E to work; takes h from hot resevoir, does work, expells excess heat into cold resevoir
want to max work 

thermal pump

Transfers heat from cold resevoir to hot


coefficient of performance

measures efficiency of therm pump for refridg and heat pump


carnot cycle

most efficient cycle for heat engine,
2 adiabatic and 2 isothermal processes 

carnot efficiency

deals in temperatures, max eff for heat engine !in kelvin


Third law

As system approaches 0 K, all process begin to stop, entrophy reaches minimum value


simple systems

single bodies of mass


periodic motion

motion that repeats itself


equilibrium

resting point of the system


amplitude

maximum displacement of mass


period

length of time for one cycle


frequency

number of cycles per unit time


simple harmonic motion

motion that can be described sinusoidally


if motion starts at 0

sin


if motion starts at displacement y=A

cos


angular frequency

how fast object is oscillating in rad/s


phase shift

change in initial displacement


wave

disturbance passing through medium carrying energy


periodic wave

continuous wave that moves sinusoidally


wavelength

spatial length of one cycle


traveling wave

dependent on time and displacement


+/

+ if wave moves to left
 if wave moves to right 

transverse wave

particles oscillate perpendicular to wave


longitudinal wave

particles oscillate parallel to wave motion


interference

behavior of two waves in the same region


Constructive interference

amplitude of the waves is summed


Destructive interference

amplitude of waves is less than either individual, if same amp, cancel each other out


reflection

wave strikes boundary and is reflected back into initial medium
fixed  inverted free  wave is same 

refraction

wave bends when entering different medium, depends on speed change


dispersion

waves at different frequencies refract at different angles in a medium


diffraction

bending of waves around obstructions (if same or smaller size than wavelength)
