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84 Cards in this Set

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A region around the nucleus of an atom where electrons are found
Energy Levels
An uncharged particle found in the nucleus of an atom
Neutron
A subatomic particle identical with the neutrons of an atom
Proton
A subatomic particle in an atom that has a negative charge. occupies energy levels
Electon
The center core of an atom that contains protons and neutrons
Nucleus
Substance that contain only one kind of matter
Element
The average mass of all known isotopes of an element
Atomic mass
an abbreviation for an element on the periodic table
Symbol
The number of protons that an atom contains
Atomic Number
The smallest particle of an element that can exist alone or in a combinatiion with other atoms
Atom
The smallest particle of a compound that retains the properties of the compounds
Molecule
The substance made of two or more elements that connot be seperated by physical means
Compound
Anything that has mass and takes up space
Matter
A measure of a materials tendency to shatter upon impact
Brittleness
A measure of a solids ability to stretch and then return to its original shape and size
Elasticity
Measure of solid's resistance to scratching
hardness
a solid's ability to be pounded into thin sheets
malleability
A property that describes the relationship between mass and volume
Density
The process by which a substance in a gaseous state loses energy and enters liquid state
Condensation
The process by which a substance in its liquid state gains energy and enters gaseous state
Evaporation
The curved surface of a column of liquid in a container
Meniscus
A measure of the inertia of an object.

The amount of matter an object contains
Mass
The force exerted on an object in a liquid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced.
Archimedes Principle
A measure of the upward force a fluid exerts on an object
Buoyancy
A substance that is capable of flowind and that changes shape at a steady rate
Fluid
A measure of a material's resistance to flow
Viscosity
The electrons in an atom that are involved in the formation of chemical bonds
Valence electrons
A region around the nucleus of an atom where electrons are found
Energy Levels
An atom that has an electrical charge
Ions
The attraction an atom has for the shared pair of electrons in a chemical bond
Electronegativity
A chemical bond that is formed when two atoms share electrons
Covalent Bond
A type of chemical bond between atoms that gained or lost electrons
Ionic Bond
A bond between two metals
Metal Bond
Atoms form bonds with other atoms by sharing or transfering electrons to complete an octet
Octet Rule
A covalent compound that consists of only two types of elements
Binary Compounds
Ions that contain more than one type of atom
Polyatomic ions
Includes the symbols for and number of atoms of each element in a compound
Molecular Formula
The simplist whole-number ratios by which elements combine
Empirical Formula
A molecule that has only two atoms of the same element
Diatomic Molecules
Large molecules that are composed of repeating smaller molecules called mononers
Polymers
Ions that contain only one type of atom
Monatomics
A reaction inwhich one element replaces a similar element in a compound
Single displacement
A reaction inwhich ions from two compounds in a solution exchange places to create different compounds.
Double Displacement
A chemical reaction inwhich a single compound breaks down to produce two or more smaller compounds
Decomposition reaction
A chemical reaction inwhich two or more substances combine to create a new compound
Synthesis/ Addition reaction
A reaction inwhich a substance combines with oxygen to produce H2O
Combustion Reaction
A change in physical properties of a substance
Physical Change
A change in a substance that involves the breaking and reforming of chemical bonds to make a new substance.
Chemical Change
The total mass of products of a reaction is equal to the total mass
Law of Conservation of Mass
Substances that are produced in a chemical reaction from reactants
Products
A substance that enters into and is altered in the course of a chemical reaction
Reactants
The reactant that is used up first in a chemical reaction
Limiting Reactant
The number of atoms in the atomic mass of an element
Avogadro's Number
One set of 6.02x10^23 atoms or molecules
Mole
A representation of a compound that inculdes the symbols and numbers of atoms in the compound
Chemical Formula
Determined by adding up the atomic mass units of all atoms in the compound
Formula Mass
The component of a solution that dissolves the solute and is present in the greatest amount
Solvent
The substance in a solution in the smallest amount; the solute is dissolved by the solvent
Solute
A mixture of two or more substances that is homogeneous at the molecular level
Solution
A way of visually distinguishing colloids from true solutions
Tyndall Effect
A type of Mixture inwhich the particles are between 1.0 and 1,000 nanometers in diameter
Colloid
A unit of measurement that is equal to one billionth of a meter
nanometer
A solution of two or more metals
Alloy
The state inwhich the solute in a solution is disolving and coming out of a solution at the same rate
Equilibrium
A type of mixture inwhich the particles are larger than 1,000 nanometers in diameter
Suspension
The formation of or seperation into ions by heat, electrical discharge, radiation, or chemical reaction.
Ionization
The state of a mixture inwhich the maximum amount of solute has dissolved in a solution.
Saturated
Condition of solution when more solute has dissolved that is normally possible at a given temperature.
Supersaturated
A solution that has a pH of 7, has equal numbers of H+ and OH-, or acidic and basic ions.
Neutral
A substance whose molecules in solution do not dissociate to idons and thus do not conduct electric current
Non-Electrolyte
A chemical that contributes to hydrogen ions, H+, to a solution
Acid
A chemical that contributes to hydroxide ions, OH-, to a solution
Base
Precipitation that has a pH level lower than 5.6
Acid Precipitation
The exact concentrations of H+ ions and OH- ions in a solution
pH
Chemicals that form ions and conduct current when dissolved in water
Elecrolytes
A partially charged particle emitted from the nucleus of an atom during radio active decay
Alpha Particle
The length of time it takes for half an amount of radio active substance to undergo radio active deacay
Half-Life
A photon emitted spontaneously by a radio active substance
Gamma Rays
Forms fo the same element that have different numbers of neutrons and mass numbers.
Isotopes
An electron emitted from the nucleus of an atom during radio active decay
Beta Particles
The process of emitting radient energy
Radiation
The attraction an atom has for the shared pair of electrons in a chemical bond
Electronegativity
A nuclear reaction that involves the splitting of the nucleus of an atom
Fission
A nuclear reaction that involves fusing nuclei from two atoms to make a different atom
Fusion