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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
mineral
a naturally formed inorganic solid composed of an ordered array of atoms chemically bonded to form a particular crystalline structure
ore
a mineral deposit containing valuable metals that can be economically extracted from the ground to yield a profit
crystallization
the growth of a solid from a material whose constituent atoms can come together in the proper chemical proportions and geometric arrangments
Crystallization starts with the formation of tiny, microscopic crystals. As time goes on, more and more atoms bond to the tiny crystal, making it grow
magma
molten rock in the earths interior
chemical sediments
formed by the precipitaions of minerals from water on the earths surface
crystal form
the outward expression of the orderly internal arrangements of atoms in a crystal
polymorphs
two or more minerals that contain the same elements in the same proportion but have dif. crystal structures
Mohs scale of hardness
A ranking of th hardness of minerals
Cleavage
the tendency of a mineral to break along planes of weakness
Fracture
a break that does not occur along a plane of weakness
Specific gravity
the ratio b/t the weight of a substance and the wieght of an equal volume of water
A mineral that is a silicate
mica and quartz
The 1st minerals to melt are those w/
lower melting points
Five mineral groups
silicates, carbonates, oxides, sulfides and sulfates
Hydrothermal minerals form from
hot underground water in cracks of rocks
Luster
the way a mineral reflects light
Birefringence
is the splitting of light into 2 rays-do you see double
Minerals crystallize from
magma solutions and water solutions
Lithification
conversion of sediments to rock
deposition
sediments coming to a rest
sedimentation
horizontal layering of sediments
erosion
transporting of sediments by water, wind or ice
2 types of chemical sediments
carbonates and evaporites
carbonates
crystallization in a water solution as the water drips over rocks
evaporites
As the water evaporates away, the minerals crystallize
hardness
it is able to scratch things that are less hard
color
Chemical impurities in minerals give them their color
Igneous rocks
formed by the cooling and crystillization of magma
Sedimentary Rocks
Rocks formed from the accumulation of weathered material (sediments) carried by water wind or ice
Metamorphic Rocks
formed from pre-existing rocks that have been changed or transformed by high temp. high pressure, or both
Partial melting
the incomplete melting or rocks resulting in magmas of dif. compositions
Extrusive Rocks
Igneous rocks that form at the earth's surface
Lava
Magma, once it reached te earth's surface
Volcano
A central vent through which lava, gases, and ash erupt and flow
Intrusive Rocks
Igneous rocks that crystallize below the below the earths surface
Pluton
A very large intrusive body formed below the earth's surface
Mechanical Weathering
the breakdown of rocks on the earth's surface by physical means
Chemical Weathering
the breakdown of rocks on the earth's surface by chemical means
Metamorphism
the changing of one kind of rock into another kind as a result of high temp, high pressure, or both
Recrystallization
Occurs when rocks are subjected to high temps, and press. and go through s change in mineral assemblage
Mechanical deformation
Metamorphism caused by stress such as increased pressure
Rock Cycle
The rock cycle refers to how Igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks are created and destroyed by earth’s active geological processes
Types of Metamorphism
Recrystallization (high temp. & pres. )
Mechanical Deformation(pre-existing rock is subjected to physical stress)
Contact Metamorphism (close proximity of a magma source)
Regional Metamorphism(heat and physical stress alter pre-existing rock over a large region)
The most common outpouring of lava on the surface occurs as
fissure eruptions
Chemical sedimentary rocks are formed from
crystallization of minerals from a water solution
Rocks fromed by cooling from a magma are
igneous rocks
Three types of magma
basaltic, granitic, andestic
Compositie Cone
has explosive eruptions
Intrusive Igneous Rocks
Plutons
Mechanical weathering
physical breakdown of older rocks
A clastic sedimentary rock w/ large rounded sediments is a
conglomerate
A clastic sedimentary rock w/ course angular sediments is a
breccia
Body Wave
a siesmic wave that travels through the earths interior; faster than surface waves
Surface Wave
a seismic wave that travels along the earth's suface; slower than body waves
Primary/P-Waves
longitudinal waves that can travel through solids, liq. and gases; faster than S-waves
Secondary/S-Waves
tranverse waves that can not travel through liquids; slower than P-waves
Core
the central layer in the earth's interior, divided into an outer liquid and an inner solid core
Mantle
the mid layer in the earth's interior b/t the crust and the core
Asthenosphere
A subdivision of the upper mantle situated below the lithosphere, a zone of plastic, easily deformed rock
Lithosphere
the entire crust plus the upper portion of the manlte above the asthenosphere
Crust
the earth's outermost layer
Pangea
A single, large landmass that existed in the geological past and was composed of all the present day continents
Love Wave
transverse waves with a side to side motion
Rayleigh Wave
transverse waves w/ an up and down motion
Seafloor spreading
the moving apart of two oceanic plates at a rift in the seafloor
Theory of Plate tectonics
The idea that the earth's lithosphere is broken up into plates that move over the asthenosphere; boundaries b/t plates are where most earthquakes and volcanoes occur
Rift
a long narrow trough that forms as a result of divergence of two plates
Fault
A fracture along which visible displacement can be detected on one side relative to the other
transform fault
a blate boundary formed by the two plates that are sliding horizontally past each other
The mantle is composed of
iron-rich silicate rocks (they behave in a plastic manner so they can flow)
Tensional forces cause the crust to
break and fracture thereby shortening the crustal surface
An earthquake occurs as
energy released from the earth's interior as seismic waves travel to the earth's surface
Convergent boundaries are areas of
plate collision
The outer core of the earth
flows fast enough to power the earth's magnetic field
At divergent plate boundaries
the plates spread apart
Mountains tend to form in long narrow ranges because
mountains are a result of plate convergence-plates coming together
The earth's lithosphere
consists of the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle