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16 Cards in this Set

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Exfoliation/Onion Skin
(Weathering)
This happens when a rock is repeatedly heated and cooled. As it is heated, the outer layer of the rock expands slightly and as it cools, the rock contracts. Continual expansion and contraction causes small pieces of the rock to peel off like the skin of an onion. This type of weathering is common in desert areas where it is very hot during the dan but cool at night.
Freeze Thaw/Frost Sahattering
(Weathering)
This is when water makes its way into a crack in a rock. If the temperature falls below freezing, the water will expand as it turns into ice. This expansion puts pressure on the rock around it and fragments may break off. This type of weathering is common in highland areas where the temperature is cooler.
Chemical
(Weathering)
Rainwater contains weak acids that can react with certain rock types. The carbonates in limestone are dissolved by these weak acids and this causes the rock to break up or disintegrate. This can be seen on limestone statues or pavements.
Biological
(Weathering)
This is the action of plants and animals on the land. Seeds that fall into cracks in rocks wil start to grow when moisture is present. The roots the young plant puts out force their way into cracks and, in time, can break up rocks. Burrowing animals, such as rabbits, can also be responsible for the further break up of rocks.
Soil Creep
(Mass Movement)
Soil creep is the slowest downhill movement of soil. Gravity will pull the water that is contained in soil down a slope. The soil will move downhill with the water. As this happens very slowly, it's not possible to see it happening, although it does move quickly after heavy rainfall. The slope may appear rippled(like sheep paths around the hill). These ripples are known as terracettes.
Slumping
(Mass Movement)
Slumping is common on the coast. Also known as rotatiional slipping, it involves a large area of land moving down a slope. Due to the nature of the slip, it leaves behind a curved surface. This is very common in clay cliffs. During dry weather the clay contracts and cracks, when it rains, the water was in to the crack and is absorbed until the rocks become saturated. This weakens the rock and, due to the pull of gravity, slips down the slope on its sliplane.
Abrasion/Corrasion
(Erosion)
Sand and pebbles carried withing waves are thrown against the cliff face with considerable force. These particles break off more rocks which in turn, are thrown against the cliff by the breaking wave. Grinding action in ice, sea and rivers.
Bulldozing-Glaciation
(Erosion)
As a large block of ice moves, the sheer foce and weight of the glacier moves the rock. The front of the glacier, the snout, moves the rock.
Corrosion
(Erosion)
This is a chemical reaction between certain rock types and the salt and other acids in seawater. This is particularly evident on limestione and chalk cliffs where the water is a milky blue at the bottom of the cliffs due to the dissolved lime.
Attrition
(Erosion)
This is a slightly different process that involves the wearign away of the rocks which are in the sea. As the boulders in the sea continually roll around, they chip away at each other until smooth pebbles or sand is formed.
Plucking-Glaciation
(Erosion)
As a glacier moves down a valley, ir puts pressure on the valley sides and bottom. This pressure creates heat and this causes a small amount of water to melt. This water runs into cracks in the valley sides or bottom and almost immediately refreezes. As the glacier moves, it pulls away some of the rock face.
Hydraulic Action
(Erosion)
This is the pressure of the water being thrown against the cliffs by the wave. It also includes the compression of air in cracks. As the water gets into cracks in the rock face, it compresses the air in the cracks; this pus even more pessure on the cracks and pieces of rock may break off.
Traction
(Transportation)
Large rocks are rolled along the sea bed.
Suspension
(Transportation)
The process of carrying sand and clay sized particles within the water.
Saltation
(Transportation)
Small sand sized particles are bounced along the sea bed in a leap-frog motion.
Solution
The process of carrying minerals in the water.