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45 Cards in this Set

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Abrasion
The grinding away of rock by friction and impact during transportation.
Weathering
The group of processes that change rock at or near the earth's surface
Differential Weathering
Varying rates of weathering resulting from some rocks in an area being more resistant to weathering than others.
Mechanical Weathering
The physical disintegration of rock into smaller pieces.
Frost Action
Mechanical weathering of rock by freezing water.
Erosion
The physical removal of rock by an agent such as running water, glacial ice or wind.
Transportation
The movement of eroded particles by agents such as rivers, waves, glaciers or wind.
Soil Horizons (A)
The dark colored soil layer that is rich in organic material snd forms just below surface vegetation. This horizon contains decomposed plant material (humus) and contributes to the formation of organic acids that accelerate leaching the E horizon. Right under top soil. Sandy.
Soil Horizons (B)
Zone of accumulation. Is a soil layer characterized by the accumulation of material leached downward from the E horizon above. This layer is quite clayey and stained red or brown by hematite and limonite. Calcite can also build up in this layer. Clayey
Soil Horizons (C)
Incompletely weathered parent material lying just below the B horizon. The parent material is commonly the underlying bedrock, which is subjected to mechanical and chemical weathering from frost action, roots, plant acids and other agents. Zone of incomplete weathering. Bedrock.
Residual Soil
Soil that develops directly from weathering of the rock below.
Soil Types (Pedalfer)
Pedalfer is rich soil, abundance of leaching. Rich humus (alfisols).
Soil Types (Pedocal)
Talk to Nick
Exfoliation dome
A large, rounded landform developed in a masive rock, such as granite, by the process of exfoliation.
Pressure Release
A significant type of mechanical weathering that causes rock to crack when overburden is removed.
Sheet Joints
Cracks that develop parallel to the outer surface of a large mass of expanding rock, as pressure is released during unloading.
Slatey cleavage(texture)/foliation
closely spaced parallel planes, but can't see any mica.
slate
Clay and other sheet silicates. Very fine-grained rock, earthy luster, splits easily into thin, flat sheets.
Phyllite
Intermediate between slatey and schistose. MICA, Fine-grained rock, silky luster, splits along wavy surfaces. Phyllitic texture.
Schist
Schistose (foliage)texture. Biotite and muscovite, amphible. Composed of visible platey of elongated minerals that show planar alignment. Wide variety of minerals can be found in various types of schist, i.e. Garnet-mica schisy, hornblende schist, etc.
Gneiss
Gneissic texture, feldspar. Foliation defined by alternating layers of light (felsic)and dark (Mafic) layers or folia.
Migmatite
Partially melted gneiss.
Metamorphism-Contact (thermal)
Is metamorphism that in which high temperature is the dominant factor. Takes place less than 10km below the earth's surface.
Metamorphism-Regional (Dynamothermal)
Regional metamorphism is metamorphism that takes place at great depth underground...usually greater than 5km.
Metamorphism
A solid state transformation. A previously existing rock is transformed into a distinct new rock without melting.
Lithification
Hardening of sediment into sedimentary rocks.
Compaction
overall loss in volume. Mud to mudstone, sand to sandstone. Modern deposition.
Cementation
Precipitation of binding agents between clasts, binging them together. sand to sandstone.
Bedding (Planar) Original horizontality
Horizontal Bedding
Cross Bedding -- --
Desert, a series of thin, inclined layers within a larger bed of rock.
Sedimentary rocks
Are formed from
1. lithification of sediment.
2. precipitation from solution.
3. consolidation of the remains of plant or animals.
Clastic Sedimentary rocks
Most sedimentary rocks are clastic sedimentary rocks.
Clastic (clast/matrix)
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Breccia
Poorly sorted, gravelly, immature.
Conglomerate
More Mature
Sandstone
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Shale
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sedimentary rock cycle
1. Weathering
2. Erosions
3. Transportation
4. Deposition
5. Lithification
6. Metamorphism
7. Melting
Parent rock
Original rock before being metamorphosed.
Confining Pressure/Stress
Pressure spplied equally on aa surfaces of a body. Also called lithostatic Pressure. No foliation
Differential Pressure/Stress
When pressures on a body are not of equal strength in all directions.
Differential Pressure/Stress Flattening
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Differential Pressure/Stress Stretching
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Shearing Pressure/Stress
Makes a parallelogram continues and gets flatter and flatter
Relative Time
The sequence in which events took place (not measured in time units).