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A person's physical self-concept can determine the physical activity behaviors one participates in.
Welk & Eklund, 2005
Early determinants
In this study it was found that boys (8-12) scored higher than girls on their perceptions of physical conditioning, physical self worth, sports competence, strength, and self-esteem. Body attractiveness was the only domain they did not score higher on.
Welk & Eklund, 2005
Early determinants - boys better than girls physically
The better perceptions boys had of themselves in this study may be due to performing better in fitness activites and having less fat than females.
Welk & Eklund, 2005
Early determinants
It has been found that boys may feel they are expected to perform better in sports and other physical activity due to the male dominance in their physical education.
Lee, Fredenburg, Belcher, & Cleveland, 1999; Wright, 1997

Welk & Eklund, 2005
Early determinants - boys better than girls
The males (8-12) were found to be more active than the females.
Welk & Eklund, 2005
Early determinants - boys more active than girls
Past studies have found that female adolescents see themselves to be heavier than they actually are. To these girls, weight was seen to be a cause of dissatisfaction.
Sands, Tricker, Sherman, Armatas, & Maschette, 1996
Early determinants - females body dissatisfaction
Descriptions of masculinity are seen to be being physical and having prowess. While femininity is concerned with attractiveness and thinness.
Sands, Tricker, Sherman, Armatas, & Maschette, 1996
Gender Stereoptypes
It has been found that people who have high self-esteem also view their bodies in a more positive way.
Sands, Tricker, Sherman, Armatas, & Maschette, 1996
Body satisfaction
Even though some women have bodies at high physical conditioning, they are still not satisfied with their bodies.
Sands, Tricker, Sherman, Armatas, & Maschette, 1996
Female body dissatisfaction
This study found an overall desire to be thin from their sample, where girls desiring to be thinner than males.
Sands, Tricker, Sherman, Armatas, & Maschette, 1996
Early determinants - girls & thinness
It was found that girls may have an understanding as to the social ideals in regards to body shape even before puberty.
Sands, Tricker, Sherman, Armatas, & Maschette, 1996
Early determinants - body ideal pressure
The females in this study (10-12) were more likely to participate in weight loss regiments than males.
Sands, Tricker, Sherman, Armatas, & Maschette, 1996
Early determinants - females & weight loss
This study found a relationship between unfrequent physical activity, low self-esteem, and high body dissatisfaction.
Sands, Tricker, Sherman, Armatas, & Maschette, 1996
Body satisfaction
Participation in sports has been seen to contribute to a postive self-concept, which is important to human development.
Klmosten, Skaalvik, & Espnes, 2004
Body satisfaction
It has been found that boys have a slightly better physical self-concept than girls.
Klmosten, Skaalvik, & Espnes, 2004
Early determinants - boys better self-concept
It was found that boys have better perceptions of appearance and physical ability than girls.
Marsh, 1989

Klomsten, Skaalvik, Espnes, 2004
Early determinants
Physical changes are usually seen around 2 years earlier for girls than boys via a growth spurt. Other noticeable physical differences are the increase in fat for girls and the slenderness of boys.
Klmosten, Skaalvik, & Espnes, 2004
Early determinants
Boys are seen to have an advantage in muscle strength and aerobic power after puberty.
Klmosten, Skaalvik, & Espnes, 2004
Early determinants
The gender differences of masculinity and femininity are sculpted by culture.
Klmosten, Skaalvik, & Espnes, 2004
Culture
Social interactions could be determined by how one interprets what it is to be female or male.
Klmosten, Skaalvik, & Espnes, 2004
Gender stereotypes
Western societies hold certain gender stereotypes. Those who are feminine are seen to be "weak, helpless, graceful, nonathletic, emotional, and passive." Masculinity is seen as "strong, forceful, dominating, athletic, brave, and competitive." The stereotype also holds that women worry about their appearance more than men.
Klmosten, Skaalvik, & Espnes, 2004
Gender stereotypes
Parents have an important role in the influence of socializing their children to gender-roles.
Klmosten, Skaalvik, & Espnes, 2004
Gender stereotypes
Adolescent boys feel the need to be masculine and to portray in image of power.
Klmosten, Skaalvik, & Espnes, 2004
Gender stereotypes
Popularity, strength, and athletic skills are associated for boys in Western societies.
Klmosten, Skaalvik, & Espnes, 2004
Gender stereotypes
Having an athletic body is seen as leading to social acceptance for boys.
Klmosten, Skaalvik, & Espnes, 2004
Gender stereotypes
Adolescent girls have pressure to fit the ideal standard of attractiveness, which is extremely thin with perfect features.
Klmosten, Skaalvik, & Espnes, 2004
Early determinants
Amongst college students, females were seen to be less satisfied with their appearance than males.
Klmosten, Skaalvik, & Espnes, 2004
Early determinants
It is noted that the differences in body dissatisfaction between girls and boys occurs between 13 and 15 years of age. Body dissatisfaction tends to decrease for boys as they age, but increase for girls as they age.
Klmosten, Skaalvik, & Espnes, 2004
Early determinants
Girls just in grammar school had more negative body satisfaction than boys.
Klmosten, Skaalvik, & Espnes, 2004
Early determinants
In this study, boys were found to have significantly higher scores on a number of items (self-esteem, global physical scale, appearance, body fat, sports competence, physical activity, endurance, strength, coordination, and health) than girls.
Klmosten, Skaalvik, & Espnes, 2004
Early determinants
Popular culture's emphasis on appearance as a means to acceptance can explain adolescent's goal of attractiveness.
Klmosten, Skaalvik, & Espnes, 2004
Early determinants
Western societies teach that an ideal male is muscular, athletic, and tall. We learn women should be thin and shorter than the man.
Klmosten, Skaalvik, & Espnes, 2004
Gender stereotypes
There may be more pressure put on girls than boys from popular culture.
Klmosten, Skaalvik, & Espnes, 2004
Gender stereotypes
Girls are seen to focus on sports that bring a presentation of attractiveness and beauty.
Klmosten, Skaalvik, & Espnes, 2004
Early determinants
A majority of college students report not participating in any vigorous to moderate exercise.
Buckworth & Nigg, 2004
No physical activity
It has been found that health behaviors during adulthood are put in place towards the end of adolescence thru the beginning of adulthood.
Buckworth & Nigg, 2004
Early determinants
Leisure time for college students consists of studying, reading, and using the computer.
Buckworth & Nigg, 2004
No physical activity
Research has found a significant difference for gender in physical activity for college students.
Buckworth & Nigg, 2004
Early determinants
In this study, it was seen that men tend to use the computer instead of exercise and women watch television instead.
Buckworth & Nigg, 2004
No physical activity
It was found that for women, as age increases the amount of exercise decreases. Men were shown to increase exercise more as age increased.
Buckworth & Nigg, 2004
Physical activity
Men may be using the computer instead of the television for leisure because the computer provides the same reinforcement women find in televsion.
Buckworth & Nigg, 2004
No physical activity
Starting from kindergarden until the last year in high school, children take part in fitness tests.
Keating, Silverman, & Kulinna, 2002
Early determinants
Both males and females were found to have the same beliefs about fitness tests.
Keating, Silverman, & Kulinna, 2002
Early determinants
Physical activity has benefits for psychological, physical, and mental health for women.
Juarbe, Lipson, & Turok, 2003
Physical activity
Women have been found to engage in less physical activity than men. Married women are even more less likely to participate in physical activity.
Juarbe, Lipson, & Turok, 2003
Physical acitivity
Women have stated several reasons for decreased physical activity, such as motherly roles, job committments, finances, and psychosocial factors.
Juarbe, Lipson, & Turok, 2003
No physical activity
It is thought that as education and socioeconomic status increase so does the amount of physical activity.
Juarbe, Lipson, & Turok, 2003
Physical activity
In this study's look at Mexican women, there were posititve attitudes towards physical activity but the majority did not participate in regular physical activity.
Juarbe, Lipson, & Turok, 2003
Physical activity
This study found women who are not hispanic to find being attractive to the opposite sex, being desired sexually, socialization, and sensual appearance as the benefits of being physically active.
Juarbe, Lipson, & Turok, 2003
Physical activity
Culture and time constrants have an impact on physical activity.
Juarbe, Lipson, & Turok, 2003
Physical activity
Ideals that are specific to gender are communicated by society, which is what people use to determine their own attractiveness.
Frederick, Fessler, & Haselton, 2005
Gender stereotypes
In America, the male ideal is to be muscular.
Frederick, Fessler, & Haselton, 2005
Gender stereotypes
When men have chosen a body that is ideal they usually choose a body that is more muscular than the body they had at the time.
Frederick, Fessler, & Haselton, 2005
Gender stereotypes
A study has revealed that images of undressed men are becoming more prevolent in women's magazines over time.
Pope et al., 2001

Frederick, Fessler, & Haselton, 2005
Gender stereotypes
It has been found that women tend to pick a body they think is desirable to men that is much thinner than what men really find attractive.
Frederick, Fessler, & Haselton, 2005
Gender stereotypes
Men also tend to want to be at a level of musculartiy that is more than what women find attractive.
Frederick, Fessler, & Haselton, 2005
Gender stereotypes
Women's magazines have been seen to display a male ideal body image that is less muscular than what is found in men's magazines.
Frederick, Fessler, & Haselton, 2005
Gender stereotypes
Women have rated finding a man with more muscles than the average man being ideal for a short-term sexual partner.
Frederick, Fessler, & Haselton, 2005
Gender stereotypes
This study found that the media misrepresent what is found to be attractive to the opposite sex and what actually attracts the opposite sex.
Frederick, Fessler, & Haselton, 2005
Gender stereotypes
Females have a innate distribution of fat in the body in order for there to be fertility. Males also have this innate quality to participate in huting and combat.
Frederick, Fessler, & Haselton, 2005
Gender stereotypes
Recently, it has been found there to be barely a difference between the genders with their concerns over physical appearance.
Davis, Karvinen, & McCreary, 2005
Gender stereotypes
The images of attractiveness are very different for men and women. Women need to be very thin and a small build while men have to be muscular with little body fat.
Davis, Karvinen, & McCreary, 2005
Gender stereotypes
There are many questions as to why our culture is so obsessed with women being thin.
Davis, Karvinen, & McCreary, 2005
Gender stereotypes
There have been sever personality traits (anxiousness, perfectionism, narcissism, focus ono appearance) associated with eating disorders.
Davis, Karvinen, & McCreary, 2005
Body dissatisfaction
There may be an equivalent to the desire of thinness for women and a desire for muscularity for men.
Davis, Karvinen, & McCreary, 2005
Gender stereotypes
It has been found a relationship between the importance boys put on attractiveness and exercising for muscle development.
Davis, Karvinen, & McCreary, 2005
Gender stereotypes
In this study, it was assumed that the extreme pursuit of muscularity is associated with similar personality traits as eating disorders.
Davis, Karvinen, & McCreary, 2005
Body dissatisfaction
This study found the desire to be muscular significantly and positively associated with neuroticism, perfectionism, appearance orientation, and fitness orientation.
Davis, Karvinen, & McCreary, 2005
Body dissatisfaction
One study found that competitive male body builders have similar psychological characteristics to females with anorexia.
Davis & Scott-Robertson, 2000

Davis, Karvinen, & McCreary, 2005
Body dissatisfaction
An image of a "hypermuscular" man is becoming the ideal sexually attractive man.
Davis, Karvinen, & McCreary, 2005
Gender stereotypes
The media help create unrealistic expectations for men and women concerning muscularity and thinnes, respectively.
Davis, Karvinen, & McCreary, 2005
Gender stereotypes
Men who are more muscular have been found to be more masculine. Men who strive more to be muscular tend to behave in ways that are stereotypically masculine.
Davis, Karvinen, & McCreary, 2005
Gender stereotypes
A female's drive for thinness is tied to body mass index.
Davis, Karvinen, & McCreary, 2005
Body dissatisfaction
Body image is an important factor to self-esteem and identity.
Miller, Gleaves, Hirsch, Green, Snow, & Corbett, 1998
Body satisfaction
This study found gender differences on weight concern and global body image.
Miller, Gleaves, Hirsch, Green, Snow, & Corbett, 1998
body dissatisfaction
Women had high correlations between body image and self-deceptive enhancement.
Miller, Gleaves, Hirsch, Green, Snow, & Corbett, 1998
Body dissatisfaction
There is a desire to find a link between psychological and physical health.
Nosicki, Adame, Johnson, & Cole, 1997
Gender stereotypes
When someone has expectancies that are internally controlled, rather than externally, they will participate in more physical activities that will improve their physical health.
Nosicki, Adame, Johnson, & Cole, 1997
Physical activity
Men have a relationship with internal control and better overall fitness.
Nosicki, Adame, Johnson, & Cole, 1997
Physical activity
The more physical fitness is valued, the more likely one will participate in behaviors to improve their physical fitness.
Nosicki, Adame, Johnson, & Cole, 1997
Physical activity
Men and women were found in this study to have better physical fitness if they had a high value for physical health.
Nosicki, Adame, Johnson, & Cole, 1997
Phyiscal activity
In this study it was found that men would perform tests of physical fitness differently if there were women observing or participating.
Nosicki, Adame, Johnson, & Cole, 1997
Physical activity
Physical education (PE) is seen as a way to display gender.
Paechter, 2003
Early determinants
In England, children start PE at age 5 and continue until 16.
Paechter, 2003
Early determinant
PE is segregated by gender in England, which grants the development of masculinity and femininity.
Paechter, 2003
Early determinant
It has been said that gender is a performance where conciously and unconciously everyone portrays what they think it means to be male or female.
Butler, 1990, 1993

Paechter, 2003
Gender stereotypes
Masculinity is closely associated with PE due to the emphasis on the body. Feminity is seen as something to be in opposition to PE.
Paechter, 2003
Early determninants
PE is where maculine and feminine traits can be acted out and the behaviors controlled by peers.
Paechter, 2003
Early determinants
Boys expect girls to not have interest in athletics and use knowledge of athletics and discussion as something purely masculine.
Paechter, 2003
Gender stereotype
The exclusion of girls from sports leads to pressure on them to stay away from sports that can last into adulthood.
Paechter, 2003
Gender stereotype
To be feminine is often to resist sports and PE. Only certain athletic activities are seen as feminine.
Paechter, 2003
Early determinants
Many girls find there is a contradiction between feminity and physical fitness.
Paechter, 2003
Gender stereotype
When the genders are segregated for PE, there are differences in the education the two receive. PE for females consists of dance and gymnastics while boys focus on competition. Competition is seen as being manly.
Paechter, 2003
Early determinants
Female PE focuses on outward appearance, which sets a goal of being attractive for others and not considering their own fitness.
Paechter, 2003
Early determinants
It is well noted that it is the woman's body that tends to be on display, not a man's.
Paechter, 2003
Gender stereotype
Body image is one's internal perception of physical appearance.
Reboussin, Rejeski, Martin, Callaha, Dunn, King, & Sallis, 2000
Body satisfaction
There may be differences between men and women in body satisfaction because the male ideal is more similar to the natural body of the average man whereas the ideal female is much thinner than the nautral body of the average woman.
Reboussin, Rejeski, Martin, Callaha, Dunn, King, & Sallis, 2000
Body dissatisfaction
Women who have bad body image also tend to feel frustration, depression, helplessness, and shame.
Reboussin, Rejeski, Martin, Callaha, Dunn, King, & Sallis, 2000
Body dissatisfaction
In this study, women were found to have a higher percent body fat and body mass index than men.
Reboussin, Rejeski, Martin, Callaha, Dunn, King, & Sallis, 2000
Body dissatisfaction
Men reported being more satisfied with their bodies than women.
Reboussin, Rejeski, Martin, Callaha, Dunn, King, & Sallis, 2000
Body satisfaction
How one performs in a physical task depends on self-concept, mood, perceived physical ability, and personality.
Reboussin, Rejeski, Martin, Callaha, Dunn, King, & Sallis, 2000
Physical activity
It was found that in women there is a relationship between muscular strength and self-esteem.
Balogun, 1986

Reboussin, Rejeski, Martin, Callaha, Dunn, King, & Sallis, 2000
Physical activity
Men had correlations between fitness and ambition and prudence. Women had correlations between fitness and anger, confusion, and vigor.
Reboussin, Rejeski, Martin, Callaha, Dunn, King, & Sallis, 2000
Physical activity
Mood variables seem to be more of a predictor of physical self-concept and interes in physical activity than motivational variables.
Reboussin, Rejeski, Martin, Callaha, Dunn, King, & Sallis, 2000
Physical activity
The differences between the genders in physiological characteristics, occupational performace, body composition, and athletic performance are due to differences in opportunities and encouragement to participat in physical activity at a young age.
Shephard, 2000
Early determinants
The gap between men and women in athletic competition is shrinking.
Shephard, 2000
Physical activity
Women have a disadvantage when participating in physical activity due to a greater amount of fat than men.
Shephard, 2000
Physical activity
Women tend to be shorter than men, which can have a negative effect of physical abilities.
Shephard, 2000
Female drawbacks
Women cannot perform as well as men in several tasks due to them having less leverage, weaker musculature, and a lower centre of gravity.
Shephard, 2000
Female drawbacks
Women have approximately 20% less aerobic power than men.
Shephard, 2000
Female drawbacks
Society and culture gave women less leisure physical activities to participate in at a young age that they tend to be more sedentary than men.
Shephard, 2000
Female drawbacks
Physically, boys and girls are very similar until puberty.
Shephard, 2000
Early determinants
At puberty females have a great increase in body fat and males gain more muscle.
Shephard, 2000
Early determinants
The female body is better suited to prolonged physical activity.
Shephard, 2000
Physical activity
Culture imposes some of the fat a female should maintain; the amount of fat in the average woman has been decreasing as more physical activity is being rewarded.
Shephard, 2000
Gender stereotypes
Woman have a higher minimum amount of essential fat than men to be considered to be in good health.
Shephard, 2000
Female drawbacks
Women have the constant emphasis by society on physical appearance. This has caused female atheletes who are being judged on appearance to have a suboptimal body mass.
Shephard, 2000
Gender stereotypes
Physical differences and what physical activities culture has told women to participate in is the cause of gender differences in physiological responses to exercise.
Shephard, 2000
Female drawbacks
Women have about 60% the muscle strength of men.
Shephard, 2000
Female drawbacks
Women tend to have a lower initial fitness level than their comprable men.
Shephard, 2000
Female drawbacks
Women have been shown to exercise for attractiveness and weight control more than men.
Tiggemann & Williamson, 2000
Gender stereotypes
This study found that the men exercised more in the past month than the women.
Tiggemann & Williamson, 2000
Physical activity
Women were found to score lower on self-seteem and body satisfaction than men.
Tiggemann & Williamson, 2000
Body satisfaction
It was found that young women have a negative relationship between body satisfaction and the amount of exercise. A negative relationship was also found between self-esteem and the amount of exercise.
Tiggemann & Williamson, 2000
Body satisfaction
Women exercise to reach the ideal body weight, but regular exercise does not help much in bringing her to her goal and can lead to great disappointment.
Tiggemann & Williamson, 2000
Physical activity
The pursuit of weight control using exercise by women is seen as self-objectification. The women who participate in self-objectification would be expected to have poorer mental health and more body shame.
Tiggemann & Williamson, 2000
Gender stereotypes
Women have a lower average body mass and, therefore, spend less energy on physical activities.
Tremblay, Shephard, McKenzie, & Gledhill, 2001
Female drawbacks
It takes longer for a woman to reduce fat than a man.
Tremblay, Shephard, McKenzie, & Gledhill, 2001
Female drawbacks