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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
What score on a MMSE is consistent with dementia?
</= 23/30
Scale is 30
Describe the staging of skin ulcers.
1: unbroken red skin
2: damage to dermis/epidermis
3: damage to sub-cutaneous tissue
4: muscle/bone involvement
Stages 1 to 4
What are the main risk factors for dementia? (4)
H ypoxia
I nfections
D rugs
E lectrolyte abnormalities
Mnemonic: HIDE
Signs of glaucoma on a fundoscopic exam? (3)
1) increased cup:disc ratio
2) assymetric cup:disc ratio
3) flame hemorrhages at the edge of the disc
What is the name of the small, yellow-white retinal lesions associated with macular degeneration?
What is conjunctival edema called?
Irritation has caused an abrormal triangular fold of membrane extending from the conjunctive to the cornea. What is this called?
Apparently, it looks like a wing.
What are the symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus? (3)
dementia, incontinence, and ataxia
All neurological symptoms, sort of
What is normal pressure hydrocephalus a consequence of?
meningitis or a subarachnoid hemorrhage
What are the clinical features of Pick's disease? (2)
dementia with alterations in mood/personality
They get picky, all of a sudden
What are the clinical features of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease? (3)
dementia, ataxia, myoclonus.

The cows get clumsy and fall over.
If multi-infarct dementia affects the white matter, what is this called?
Binswanger's disease
Their diathesis for infarction results in penile infarcts and ultimately Peyronie syndrome.
What is the very basic difference between ADLs and IADLs?
ADLs are basic tasks related to life beyond childhood, such as dressing yourself or toileting. IADLs are more complex ways to sustain yourself, like driving or shopping.
What are the ADLs? (5)
D ressing
E ating
A mbulatin
T oileting
H ygiene
Mnemonic: DEATH
What are the IADLS? (5)
S hopping
H ousekeeping
A ccounting
F ood Preparation
T ransportation
Mnemonic: SHAFT
Which type of glaucoma is sudden-onset? Which type is more insisdious?
Sudden: Acute angle-closure glaucoma

Insidious: Open angle glaucoma
What is the best test for macular degeneration?
Amsler grid test -> patient sees wavy lines instead of grid
Patient has Parkinsonian symptoms along with autonomic dysfunction. Dx?
Shy-Drager syndrome
Patient has rigidity, bradykinesia, dementia, and loss of voluntary eye movements. Dx?
Progressive supranuclear palsy
What are the two main findings of a cerebellar tremor?
Intention tremor with ataxia
A lady has no children. Is she at low risk or high risk of osteoporosis?
High risk -> low estrogen
Which racial groups are associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis? (3)
Native American
Pacific Islander
Northwestern European
-especially blondes/redheads with freckles
Patient has smudge cells on peripheral blood smear. Dx?
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
The answer is B
How is sleep affected by aging?
Less stage 3/4 sleep -> old people tire out quicker
Patient has bowlegs and hearing loss. Dx?
Dx: Paget's disease
Elderly patients with leg pain has a leg that is abducted and slightly externally rotated. What kind of fracture is this?
Femoral neck fracture
Patient faints at the sight of blood. What type of syncope is this?
Vasovagal - the "Common" faint

Patient tilts head to one side and then loses consciousness. He has also noticed this syncope when shaving or when wearing a tight collar. What type of syncope is this?
carotid sinus syncope
Patient faints during the benchpress. What type of syncope is this?
Subclavian steal syndrome
More blood is going to the arms
Elderly patient has lymphatic filariasis and then has a fall. What caused the fall?
Edema of the extremities -> clumsiness
Is having poor sleep habits or a low energy level a cause for a fall?
What's the usual order of loss of ADLs in the deteriorating elderly patient?
Hygiene -> Dressing -> Toileting/Ambulating -> Eating
What is urge incontinence?
Detrusor overreactivity
What are the 2 most common causes of urge incontinence?
Stroke (UMN lesion)

Others: Parkinson's dz, dementia
How do patients describe urge incontinence?
They peed themselves after a SUDDEN URGE TO URINATE.
A patient has slow, drippy incontinence. What type of incontinence is this?
Overflow incontinence
What are the categorical causes of overflow incontinence? (3)
Acontractile bladder (DM, SCI)
Anatomic obstruction (BPH)
Detrusor-Sphincter Dyssynergy (MS, Spinal Cord Lesions)
Da nerve, Da nervus, Da outflow
Patient dribbles urine when she laughs or sneezes. What type of incontinence is this?
Stress incontinence
An immobile demented patient pees himself. What sort of incontinence is this?
Functional incontinence
A baby pees himself. What type of incontinence is this?
Functional incontinence