Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
to hear an aortic regurg murmur
pt. must sit, lean fwd and exhale
things to consider w/ fatigue
-depression, anxiety
-hepatitis, mono, TB
-hypothyroid, adrenal insuff, BM, hypopituitary
-HF, chronic dz of lungs, kidneys, liver
-electrolyte imbalance
-anemia, CA
-nutrition, medication
short stature
turner's, childhood renal failure, dwarfism
truncal fat
cushing's, syndrome x
immobile face
breath of alcohol, acetone
DM, pulm infxns, uremia, liver failure
some problems alcoholics may have that can be corrected
hypoglycemia, subdural hematoma, post-ictal state
preference for sitting up
L sided HF
leaning fwd w/ arms braced
unrecognized auscultory gap leads to underestimation of _____pressure and overestimation of _____ pressure
systolic, diastolic
occasionally in ________ there is no disappearance pt after the muffling pt in BP
aortic regurg
________may produce artificially low systolic and high diastolic pressures
venous congestion (does this by making sounds less audible)
pressure difference of more than 10-15 mmHg
arterial compression or obstruction on the side w/ lower pressure
causes of orthostatic hypotn
drugs, loss of blood, prolonged bed rest, disease of ANS
femoral pulse that is smaller and later than the radial pulse
coarctation of the aorta, occlusive aortic disease (BP is lower in the legs than arms in these conditions)
prolonged expiration
narrowing in the bronchioles
rapid respitory rates increase the discrepancy b/t ___ and ____ temps - in this case which is more reliable?
oral, rectal
rectal is more reliable
causes of fever
-blood disorders (acute hemolytic anemia)
-drug rxns
-immune disorders (collagen vascular dz)
causes of hypothermia
-exposure to cold (duh)
-vasoconstriction from sepsis, excess alcohol, starvation, hypothyroidism, hypoglycemia
-elderly more susceptible, less likely to get fevers
most common kinds of recurring headaches
tension, migraine
tension headaches arise in
temporal area
cluster headaches arise in
retro-orbital area
what can cause gradual blurring besides a refractive error?
high blood sugar levels
sudden visual loss
-retinal detachment
-vitreous hemorrhage
-occlusion of central retinal artery
fixed defects (scotomas)
lesions in the retinas or visual pathways
slow central loss of vision
nuclear cataract, mac. degeneration
peripheral loss of vision
advanced open-angle glaucoma
one-sided vision loss
hemianopsia, quadrant defects
moving specks of strands
vitreous floaters
flashing lights or new vitreous floaters
vitreous detachment from retina
diplopia in adults
-lesion in brainstem or cerebellum
-weakness/paralysis of EOM
horizontal diplopia
palsy of CN3 or CN6
vertical diplopia
palsy of CN3 and 4
diplopia in 1 eye
problem in cornea or lens
extremely severe headaches
subarach hem, meningitis
trouble understanding speech, noisy environments make hearing worse, sound heard louder in good ear for weber test, sound heard in air longer for rinne test
sensorineural hearing loss
noisy environments help hearing, sound heard in bone longer for rinne test
conductive hearing loss
meds that affect hearing
aminoglycosides, ASA, NSAIDS, quinine, furosemida
unsteady, lightheaded, "dizzy in the legs"
cardiovascular etiology, not true vertigo
feeling of being pulled
true vertigo - suggests inner ear prob or peripheral lesion of CN8
fine hair
course hair
redness and scaling
-seborrheic dermatitis
-pilar cysts
enlarged skull
-Paget's disease
person is legally blind if vision is ____ or if field of vision is ______
constricted- 20 degrees or less in the better eye
lateral sparseness (of hair?)
excessive tearing
-increased production (conjunctival inflam, corneal irritation)
-impaired drainage (ectropion, nasolacrimal duct obstruction)
testing the near rxn is helpful in diagnosing...
Argyll Robinson, tonic (Adie's) pupils
lid lag, poor convergence
contraindications for mydriatic drops
-head injury
-narrow-angle glaucoma
absence of red reflex
-opacity of lens or vitreous
-detached retina
-retinoblastoma in children
w/ surgically removed lens, retinal structures look _____ and fundus looks ____
smaller, larger
enlarged cup
chronic open-angle glaucoma
loss of venous pulsations may be an early sign of _____
intracranial pressure (in a pathologic condition like head trauma, meningitis, lesions)
soft thyroid
graves disease
firm thyroid
hashimoto's, malignancy, benign/malignant nodules
tender thyroid
localized systolic or continuous bruit
causes of generalized itching
-dry skin, aging
-uremia, jaundice
-lymphomas, leukemia
-drug rxn
artificial light distorts ____
causes of central cyanosis
-advanced lung disease
-congenital heart disease
-abNL Hb
drugs that may cause stuffiness
-oral contraceptives
mucosa in viral rhinitis
reddened and swollen
mucosa in allergic rhinitis
pale, bluish, or red
function of thyroid in goiter
hypo, hyper, or NL fnxn
polyps usually come from
middle meatus
asymmetric protrusion of tongue
lesion of CN 12
CA most often occurs where on tongue?
on side
soft palate fails to rise, uvula deviates to opposite side
paralysis of CN10
enlargement of supraclavicular node, esp. on L side
possible metastasis from thoracic or abdominal malignancy
tracheal deviations
-mediastinal mass
-large pneumothorax
causes of weight loss:
-GI diseases
-endocrine = DM, hyperthyroidism, adrenal insuff
-chronic infxns
-chronic cardiac, pulm, renal failure
-anorexia, bulemia