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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the age range for infancy, early & middle childhood, and adolescence?
• Infancy: Birth - 1 yr

• Early Childhood: 1 - 4 yrs

• Middle Childhood: 5 - 10 yrs

• Adolescence: 10 - 20 yrs
What are the 5 parts of the Apgar scoring system?
• Heart Rate
• Respiratory effort
• Muscle tone
• Reflex irritability
• Color
Describe the classification by birth weight
• extremely low birth weight (< 1000 g)
• very low birth weight (< 1500 g)
• low birth weight (< 2500 g)
• normal birth weight (> 2500 g)
Describe the classification of gestational age
• Preterm (< 37 weeks or 259th day)
• Term (37-42 weeks)
• Postterm (> 42 weeks)
What is acrocyanosis?
a blue cast to the hands & feet when exposed to cold
What is Sturge-Weber syndrome?
• a unilateral port wine stain over the distribution of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve

• associated with seizures, hemiparesis, glaucoma, & mental retardation
Significant edema of the hands and feet of a newborn girl may suggest what?
Turner's syndrome
What is caput succedaneum?
• localized subcutaneous edema over the occipitoparietal region caused by distention of capillaries and extravasation of blood and fluid

• swelling often crosses over suture lines and resolves in 1-2 days
What is a cephalohematoma?
• localized swelling of the scalp caused by subperiosteal hemorrhage from birth trauma
• does not cross over suture lines & resolves within 3 weeks
What is a Chvostek's sign?
• percuss at the top of the cheek just below the zygomatic bone in front of the ear
• a positive Chvostek's sign produces facial frimacing caused by repeated muscle contractions of the facial muscles
• noted in hypocalcemic tetany, tetanus, and tetany due to hyperventilation
What are Brushfield spots?
• a ring of white specks in the iris
• strongly suggest Down syndrome
What is craniosynostosis?
premature closure of one or more cranial sutures
List 2 chest wall abnormalities noted in childhood
• pectus excavatum (funnel chest)
• pectus carinatum (chicken breast deformity)
What is the best single sign for ruling out pneumonia?
absence of tachypnea
What are the 4 factors in Tetralogy of Fallot?
• Overriding aorta
• Pulmonary Stenosis
• Right ventricular hypertrophy
What is the most common dysrhythmia in children?
What is hypospadias?
when the urethral orifice appears at some point along the ventral surface of the glans or shaft of the penis
Name and describe the two major tests used to evaluate the hips
• Ortolani test: tests for the presence of posteriorly dislocated hip
• Barlow test: tests for the ability to sublux or dislocate an intact but unstable hip
What is the most common severe congenital foot deformity?
Talipes equinovarus or clubfoot
What is the acoustic blink reflex?
blinking of the infant's eyes in response to a sudden sharp sound
What is a Hoover sign?
paradoxical breathing in which the abdomen moves outward while the chest moves inward during inspiration
Describe the palmar grasp reflex
• when you place your fingers in the baby's hand & press against the palmar surface, the baby will flex all fingers to grasp your fingers
• normal from birth to 3-4 months
Describe the plantar grasp reflex
• touch the sole at the base of the toes and the toes will curl
• normal from birth to 6-8 months
Describe the Moro Reflex (Startle Reflex)
• Hold the baby supine, supporting the head, back, and legs. Abruptly lower the entire body about 2 feet
• the arms abduct & extend, hands open, and legs flex
• Normal from birth to 2 months
Describe the asymmetric tonic neck reflex
• with baby supine, turn head to one side, holding jaw over shoulder
• the arms/legs on side to which head is turned extend, while the opposite arm/leg flex
• normal from birth to 2 months
Describe the positive support reflex
• hold the baby around the trunk & lower until the feet touch a flat surface
• the hips, knees, and ankles extend, the baby stands up, partially bearing weight, and sags after 20-30 sec
• normal from birth/2mo - 6 months
Describe the rooting reflex
• stroke the perioral skin at the corners of the mouth
• the mouth will open and baby will turn the head toward the stimulated side and suck
• normal from birth to 3-4 months
Describe the trunk incurvation (Galant's) reflex
• support the baby prone with one hand, and stroke one side of the back 1 cm from midline, from shoulder to buttocks
• the spine will curve toward the stimulated side
• normal from birth to 2 months
Describe the placing and stepping reflexes
• hold baby upright from behind and have one sole touch the tabletop
• the hip and knee of that foot will flex and the other foot will step forward
• alternate stepping will occur
• present at birth, disappears at variable age
Describe the Landau reflex
• suspend the baby prone with one hand
• the head will lift up, and the spine will straighten
• normal from birth to 6 months
Describe the parachute reflex
• suspend the baby prone and slowly lower the head toward a surface
• arms and legs will extend in a protective fashion
• normal at 4-6 months and does not disappear
What is the most frequent cause of an elevated blood pressure in children?
an improperly performed examination often due to an incorrect cuff size
Blood pressure in the thighs that are the same or lower than blood pressure in the arms can indicate what?
coarctation of the aorta
What is anisometropia?
eyes with significantly different refractive errors
What is amblyopia?
reduced vision in an otherwise normal eye
What is the most common benign murmur heard in children?
Still's murmur (a I-II/VI midsystolic murmur located over the mid or lower left sternal border, but also frequently heard over the carotid arteries
What is a positive Trendelenburg's sign?
seen in severe hip disease, it is when the pelvis tilts toward the unaffected hip when weight is bornon the affect side
What are some of the facial characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome?
• short palpebral fissures
• a wide and flattened hiltrum (the vertical groove in the midline of the upper lip)
• thin lips
What are some of the facial characteristics of Down's Syndrome?
• small, rounded head
• flattened nasal bridge
• oblique palpebral fissures
• prominent epicanthal folds
• small, low-set, shell-like ears
• relatively large tongue
What aspects of development are measures by the Denver Developmental Screening Test?
• Gross Motor
• Language
• Fine motor
• Personal/Social