Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the ectocervix?
the vaginal surface of the cervix, easily seen with a speculum
Describe the 2 types of epithelium covering the extovervix
• columnar epithelium (surrounds the os)
• squamous epithelium (shiny & pink continuous w/ the vaginal lining
What does the term adnexa refer to?
ovaries, tubes, and supporting tissues
What is the pouch of Douglas?
• a cul de sac called the rectouterine pouch, which is behind the uterus
• palpable on rectovaginal examination
What is the difference between primary & secondary ammenorrhea?
• primary amenorrhea is the the failure to initate periods
• secondary amenorrhea is the cessation of periods after they have been established
What is oligomenorrhea?
infrequent periods which may also be irregular
What is polymenorrhea?
abnormal frequent periods
What is menorrhagia?
an increase amount or duration of flow
What is metorrhagia?
• intermenstrual bleeding
• bleeding occuring between periods
Describe the gravida-para system
• G = gravida, or total number of pregnancies
• P = para, outcomes of pregnancies; notions include F (full-term), P (premature), A (abortion), L (living child)
What is vaginismus?
• an involuntary spasm of the muscles surrounding the vaginal origice
• makes intercourse painful or impossible
What are the 2 primary types of cervical cancer?
• squamous cell carcinomas (80-90%)
• adenocarcinomas in glandular cells (10-20%)
What is the preinvasive pathologic precursor to cervical cancer?
cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
What is pediculosis pubis?
lice or "crabs," suggested by excoriation or itchy, small, red maculopapules
What can a yellowish discharge on an endocervical swab suggest?
mucopurulent cervicitis, commonly caused by:
• Chalmtdia trachomatis
• Neisseria gonorrhoeae
• Herpes Simplex
Describe an epidermoid cyst
a small, firm, round cystic nodule in the labia yellowish in color
What is Condyloma Acuminatum?
• vernereal wart
• warty lesions on the labia and within the vestibule
• result from infection w/ HPV
What is a cystocele?
• a bulge of the upper two thirds of the anterior vaginal wall, together w/ the bladder
• results from weakened supporting tissues
What is a cystourethrocele?
bulge involving the entire anterior vaginal wall, together w/ the bladder and urethra
What is a urethral caruncle?
• a small, red, benign tumor visible at the posterior part of the urethral meatus
• occurs chiefly in postmenopausal women and usually causes no symptoms
What are physical findings of a Bartholin's gland infection?
• tense, hot, tender abscess
• pus coming out of the duct or erythema around the duct opening
• a nontender cyst is felt (in chronic cases)
What is a rectocele?
• a herniation of the rectum into the posterior wall of the vagina
• due to a weakness or defect in the endopelvic fascia
What is a retention cyst?
• a form of metaplasia of columnar epithelium
• appears as one or more translucent nodules on the cervical surface
• has no pathologic significance
What are characteristics of cervical polyps?
• usually arises from endocervical canal
• bright red, soft, and fragile
• benign, but may bleed
What are some factors that can increase the risk of cervical cancer?
• early frequent intercourse
• infection w/ HPV
• multiple partners
• smoking
What are some causes of vaginal discharge?
• Trichomonal vaginitis
• Candidal Vaginitis
• Bacterial Vaginosis
What are some signs & symptoms of bacterial vaginosis?
• thin , homogeneous, gray or white discharge
• malodorous (fishy or musty genital odor)
• vulva & vaginal mucosal usually normal
What are lab test that can help confirm a diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis?
• scan saline wet mount for clue cells (epithelial cells w/ stippled borders)
• sniff for fishy odor after applying KOH
What is retroversion of the uterus?
a tilting backward of the entire uterus, including body and cervix
What is the difference between moderate and marked retroversion?
• in moderate retroversion, the body of the uterus may not be palpable with either hand
• in marked retroversion, the body can be felt posterioly (either through the posterior fornix or rectum)