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9 Cards in this Set

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Physical Clinical Labs
Elissa J. Mullen, ND
Clinical Lab diagnosis flash cards were written to have a quick portable review. Please let me know of any mistakes, updates or additional information that you believe would add to other Naturopathic doctors passing the Clinical lab exam.

I reviewed these cards using Clinical Laboratory Diagnosis notes taught by the brilliant Dr. Berman. (Bastyr University, 2003)

Thanks, good luck everyone…Elissa
drelissa@seattlewellnessprograms.com
Table of Contents
Hemostasis 13
Clotting Factors – Common tests 15
INR 17
Clotting Deficiencies 19
D-Dimer 21
Thrombocytopenia 23
Thrombocytopenia 25
Thrombocytosis 27
Erythrocytosis 29
EIA Testing (Enzyme Immuno Assay) 31
HIV -EIA 33
HIV-Western Blot Test 35
Viral Load with PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) 37
ANA 39
Anti-dsDnA 41
Anti SM/RNP 43
Anti-SS-A/Anti-SS-B 45
RF 47
Anemia 49
CBC 51
Sucrose hemolysis test 53
Direct Comb’s test 55
MCV/MCH/MCHC 57
Ferritin 59
Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC)/Transferrin Saturation 61
RED CELL MORPHOLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES 63
Hypochromic 65
Polychromic 67
Anisocytosis 69
Microcytic 71
Macrocytosis 73
Spherocytosis 75
Stomatocytosis 77
Acanthocytosis 79
Target Cells 81
Elliptocytosis 83
Schistocytosis 85
Echinocytes 87
Sickle Cells 89
Tear Drop Cells 91
Rouleaux Formation 93
Howell-Jolly Bodies 95
Basophilic stippling 97
Bite Cells 99
WBC count 101
WBC differential 103
Eosinophils 105
Basophils 107
Neutrophils 109
Autoimmune Collagen/Vascular Disorders 111
Lupus Erythematosus 113
Dermatomyositis 115
Scleroderma 117
CREST syndrome 119
HLA-B27 antigen 121
Common Labs 123
Electrolytes 125
Acid base disorders / Differential diagnosis 127
Alkaline phosphatase 129
ALT 131
AST 133
Ammonia 135
Amylase 137
Lipase 139
Albumen (ALB) 141
Total Protein 143
Bilirubin 145
B12 147
Calcium 149
Hyperparathyroidism 151
Hypoparathyroidism 153
Phosphate 155
Uric Acid 157
Acute Gouty Arthritis 159
Liver Disease 161
Standard Liver Panel 163
Sarcoidosis 165
ACE 167
Polycythemia Vera 169
Chronic Glomerulonephritis 171
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia 173
Sjögrens 175
Cholesterol 177
Triglyceride 179
Creatine Kinase 181
Troponin 183
Creatinine 185
ESR/CRP 187
CK/CPK 189
Myoglobin 191
α-Fetoprotein 193
PSA 195
Globulin 197
Glucose 199
Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD)/ IA2- Autoantibodies 201
Hemoglobin A1c 203
Homocysteine 205
LDH 207
Magnesium 209
K+ / Potassium 211
Na+ / Sodium 213
HCO3- / Bicarbonate 215
Cl- / Chloride 217
BUN/ Creatinine 219
TSH 221
Urnialysis 223
GFR/Creatinine Clearance 225
UA/Microscopy I 227
UA/Microscopy II 229
hCG 231
24 Hour Urine 233
Urine Specfic Gravity 235
Urine Color 237
Urine Odor 239
Hormones 241
ANF 243
Cortisol/Dexamethason suppression 245
Disorders of Cortisol Secretion 247
DHEA 249
Estrogen 251
Progesterone 253
FSH/LH 255
Gastrin 257
Growth Hormone 259
hCG 261
Prolactin 263
Testosterone 265
Thyroid 267
Thyroid Anatomical problems 269
T3/T4/TSH 271
Thyroid antibody 273
Vitamin D 275
Gastrointestinal 277
Helicobacter pylori- Antibodies 279
Urea Breath test 281
Diarrhea Syndromes Classified by Predominant Features I 283
Diarrhea Syndromes Classified by Predominant Features II 285
Stool Cultures 287
Stool Analysis 289
Colonoscopy 291
Sigmoidoscopy 293
Upper GI endoscopy 295
ERCP 297
Gliadin Antibody Profile, IgG, IgA, by EIA 299
Gynecological 301
Syphilis 303
Gonorrhea 305
Chlamydia 307
Candidiasis 309
HPV 311
Molluscum contagiosum 313
Pap Smear 315
LEEP 317
CA-125 -Ovarian Cancer 319
Breast Discharge 321
Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcus 323
Herpes Simplex 325
KOH 327
Infectious Disease 329
Throat Swab 331
Streptococcus A 333
Streptococcus B 335
Nasal Smear 337
Dermatophytes 339
Acid-fast Bacillus 341
Gram Positive 343
Gram Negative 345
CMV Antibodies, IgG 347
Bacillus Anthracis 349
Meningitis 351
EBV 353
Escherichia coli 0157: H7 355
Hepatitis 357
Lyme disease IgM AB 359
TB 361
Rubella 363
Parvovirus B19- fifth disease 365
Tumor Markers 367
Tumor Markers-Sensitivity & Specificity 369
Pulmonary Function tests 371
Hemostasis
• Definition: Balance between clotting and bleeding
• Platelet Count—CBC
o Norm: 150,000 – 450,000/L
• 3 Main Functions
1. Retain blood in vessels
2. Localize reactions to site of injury
3. Repair and reestablish blood flow
Clotting Factors – Common tests
Common tests;
• Prothrombin time (extrinsic pathway) Prothrombin F1=2 and INR
o Measures Extrinsic and Common pathway effectiveness
o Factors: I, II, V, X, VII
• Activated Partial thromboplastim Time (intrinsic pathway)
o Measures Intrinsic and Common pathways
o Factors: I, II, V, X, VIII, IX, XI, XII
• Thrombin time (Functional Fibrinogen)
• Factoassyas
• Anticoagulant interference
o Heparin
o Coumadin
• Fibrin Degradation Products
• Protamine Sulfate
• Protein C
• Anti-thrombin III
INR
International normalized ratio:
• WHO standardized control of anticoagulant therapy internationally
• Ratio of patient PT to control PT x international sensitivity index (ISI)
• A standard reference range is not available for this test. Because reference values are dependent on many factors, including patient age, gender, sample population, and test method, numeric test results have different meanings in different labs.
• For most clinical conditions, an INR of 2.5 to 3.0 indicates the appropriate dosage. INR values above 5.0 can be dangerous. INR values of 1.0 indicate no Coumadin effect at all.
Clotting Deficiencies
1. I, II, VII
2. VIII
a. Hemophilia A
b. Von Willebrands- autosomal dominant
3. IX
a. Vitamin K Deficiencies - Hemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn
b. Liver disease
c. DIC
4. X, XI, XII, XIII
5. Fibrinolysis