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77 Cards in this Set

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Anthropology
the science of human cultural and biological variation and evolution
Epidemiology
the branch of medicine dealing with the incidence and prevalence of disease in large populations
Culture
shared, learned behavior through the process of learning rather than instinct
Biocultural Approach
studying humans in terms of the interaction between biology and culture in evolutionary adaptations
Comparative Approach
comparing human populations to determine common and unique behaviors or biological traits
Evolution
The change in gene frequencies in a population over time
Adaptation
the process of successful interaction between a population and an environment
Paleoanthropology
study of the fossil remains of human evolution
Enculturation
how we learn our culture
options when dealing with carrying capacity
1. limit the population
2. increase food supply
3. migration
Ethnocentrism
the belief that your culture is "better" than other ways of life
Adaptation
a human's way of adjusting culture based on needs
Subfields of Anthropology
1. Cultural Anthropology
2. Linguistic Anthropology
3. Archeology
4. Physical or Biological Anthropology
Cultural Anthropology
study of living people (not past)
Etic
Outsider's point of view
Emic
insider's point of view
Linguistic Anthropology
study of human language
Archaeology
deals with past cultures
Physical or Biological Anthropology
focuses on human biology
Falsification
rejecting a hypothesis
Theory
a hypothesis tested over and over and never proven wrong
Imperical Data
observed data (you can see, touch)
William Smith
studied layers of earth and rejected idea that earth was 6,000 years old
Mendel
worked with pea plants
discovered the atom
created dominant/recessive traits
Darwin's Works and when
1859 - Origin of Species
1871 - The Descent of Man
Gould and Eldridge Work
1974
What % DNA do we share with chimps?
98%
How many bones (on average) in humans and chimps?
206
Jane Goodall
Behavior studies - compared chimp and human behavior
How many genes (on average) in humans?
35,000
Gene Frequency
how often genes occur
Chimp has how many chromosomes?
48
Humans have how many chromosomes?
46
Genotype
Genetic endowment of an individual (the gene saying/coding that you are going to have brown eyes)
Phenotype
the actual observable trait (you physically having brown eyes)
When did we crack the DNA code?
1940's
Oswald Avery
Discovered DNA double helix
Chromosomes
long strands of DNA that contain the genes
Watson and Crick
Came up with Principle of Complementarity
Mitosis
process of replication of chromosomes in body cells; ordinary cell replication
Meiosis
creation of sex cells by replication of chromosomes followed by cell division; genetic code passed on; sex cell replication
Mechanisms of Evolution
1. Natural Selection
2. Mutation
3. Genetic Drift
4. Gene Flow
Genetic Drift
Genetic isolation; the idea that if you have a restricted population, the genes will be shared within that population
Gene Flow
genes from one population are flowing to another population; reverses the flow of genetic drift; decreases the difference between the populations and makes them more like other populations
Alleles
Different forms of genes
Gene
segment of a chromosome
Homozygous
both alleles at a given locus are the same
Heterozygous
the two alleles at a given locus are different
Co-Dominant
when two different alleles are present in a genotype and they are both expressed
K-selected
produce fewer offspring and invest more care into them (humans)
R-selected
produce more offspring (fish)
Phyletic Gradualism
groups of organisms related to each other change slowly over time; microevolution occuring at a very slow rate (Darwin's straight line)
Microevolution
changes within a species
Macroevolution
changing into a new species
Punctuated equilibrium
gaps in the fossil record; organisms in equilibrium with their environment; something happens and rapid speciation takes place; a model of macroevolutionary change in which long periods of little evolutionary change are followed by relatively short periods of rapid evolutionary change
What does Carl Sagen mean when he says, "Life is a three letter word?"
Amino acids are combinations of three letter DNA that bond together to make proteins; you read them three at a time
4 Engines of Evolution
1. Natural Selection
2. Mutation
3. Genetic Drift
4. Gene flow
Natural selection
Darwin's ideas of fitness in a reproductive sense; survival of the fittest; over-achieving theory
Mutation
the ultimate source of new genetic information acted upon by natural selection; not necessarily bad or abnormal things; random changes in our genes
Biological species
mating naturally and producing fertile offspring
Polgenic traits
trait influenced by one or more genes
Pleitropic genes
a gene that influences or affects one or more traits
Paleospecies
extinct species
Anagenisis
straight-line evolution; evolving directly from ancestors
Cladogenesis
branching evolution
Demographer
someone studying populations
Gamete
sex cells
Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms
1. Mechanics
2. Different Pollinators
3. Hybrid Inviability
4. Gamete isolation
5. Sexual
6. Seasonal
7. Hybrid sterility
8. Ecological
Who created Piltdown?
Charles Dawson
Bishop Usher
Counted all begats in the bible and said the earth was 6,000 years old
Thomas Huxley
Darwin's bulldog
Defended Darwin's theory of evolution
Lamark
Giraffe neck
Code for down syndrome
tri-somey 21
independent assortment
independent segregation and assortment of chromosomes during sexual reproduction. Independent assortment occurs during meiosis
What gene controls language
Fox P2 gene
Processes that do not change gene frequencies in the population
1. Crossing-over
2. Recombination
3. Mating
Processes that do change gene frequencies in the population (they cause evolution directly)
1. Mutation
2. Gene Flow