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66 Cards in this Set

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Gravitational Constant
G = 6.67 × 10-11 Nm2 kg-2
Joule
1 J = kilogram meter² / second²
Hertz
1 (Hz) = 1 cycle/second
Planck's Constant
h = 6.6 × 10-34 m2 kg / s
Speed of Light
300,000,000 m/s
Speed of Sound
340 m/s
Superposition
waves will superimpose and produce a well defined combined effect.
Constructive Interference
two waves meet at a point where their displacement is in the same direction
Destructive Interference
two waves meet at a point where their displacements are in opposite directions
Hologram
an image that replicates the exact waves of an object that appears to be in three dimensions
Coherent light
a beam of light whose photons all have the same optical properties
Resolution
the amount of small detail visible in an image
Diffraction
the bending of waves around corners
Energy of position (potential energy)
the energy that matter has because of its position or arrangements of atoms or parts
Energy of motion (kinetic energy)
the energy that a body has as a result of its motion
Energy of existence (rest energy)
the energy equivalent to the mass of a particle at rest
Antimatter
matter which consists of antiparticles that have opposite electrical charges
Neutrinos
a particle with no rest mass or charge that spins counterclockwise
Higgs boson
give mass to other particles
Matter/ antimatter anihilation
converts all energy to kinetic energy
Quantum mechanics
theory that predicts how atoms move using odds
Basic Principles of Quantum Mechanics
particles move like waves

all atoms have certain energy levels which emit certain wavelengths of light
Hidden Variables
phenomena beyond quantum mechanics that are needed to explain an individual event
Entanglement
when two or more objects have to be described with reference to each other
Wavefunction
the encoded possibilities of any given outcome
Bifurcating many worlds
for every decision there are two choices which occur at the same time in another world
Many-Worlds interpretation
parallel universes exist which take the randomness out of quantum mechanics
Copenhagen Interpretation (1927)
says there is no quantum world there are only abstract physical descriptions of events.
Exclusion Principle
two particles cannot have the same position and velocity
John S. Bell
born 1928 said that hidden variables do not work with quantum mechanics
Bell's Inequality
measurements on one part of a quantum system can have instantaneous affects on another part
String Theory
Determines what particles exist and their properties

Determines what forces exist

Determines the number of dimensions
M-Theory
theory that encompasses string theory and supergravity
Composition at the creation of the universe
75% hydrogen and 25% helium
Stellar Life cycles
Bigger stars have shorter lives

Size of a star depends on the balance of gravity and fusion
Main sequence stars
fuse hydrogen into helium
Supernovas
Produce heavy elements past iron

Bright as 100 billion stars

Upon death, become neutron stars and pulsars
Problem with sound in space
sound needs a medium to pass through
Problem with seeing phaser fire
the energy a phaser travels at the speed of light which means you wouldn't be able to see the phaser coming
Problem with invisibility phasing
the bending of light around a spaceship which makes it invisible would mean that the occupants could not see out of the ship
Doppler Compensators
compensates for the relative motion of the origin to the destination while traveling at high speeds
Heisenberg Compensators
compensates for the Heisenberg uncertainty principle which stats that one cannot know the quantum state of a subatomic particle
Moore's Law
computing power doubles every two years
Tycho Brahe
1546 Observed a supernova which did not change positions in the sky with different reference frames
Galileo Galilei
1564 All objects fall at the same rate in a vacuum
Johannes Kepler
1571 Orbits are ellipses
Pierre de Fermat
1601 Light travels from one point to another along the path that takes the least time
Isaac Newton
1643
Gravity is a force (GMm/r^2) which explains Galileo and Kepler's orbit
1) an isolated object with travel in a straight line at a constant velocity
2) F=ma
3)For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
Einstein
1878 General Relativity

Special relativity
Stephen Hawking
1942 Black holes
General Relativity
force of gravity can be replicated by acceleration

light takes a path that takes the least amount of time

gravity is a curvature of spacetime

we think of gravity as a force when we mistakenly think of spacetime as flat
Special Relativity
The speed of light is the same for all observers
Blackholes
when escape velocity exceed the speed of light

event horizon
Escape Velocity Formula
Ve = √(2GM/R)
Radial Acceleration Formula
A=v2/r
Force of Attraction Formula
F=GmM/r2
Lorentz Contraction Formula
Length at speed v = (length at rest) x √[1-(v²/c²)]
Lorentz Factor for High Velocity
ϒ = 1/ √[1-(v²/c²)]
Lorentz Factor for Small Velocity
ϒ = 1 + ½(v/c)²
Time Dilation Formula
Time observed in motion = (t observed at rest) / √[1-(v²/c²)]
Non-relativistic Kinetic Energy Formula
E = (1/2)mv²
Matter Conversion Formula
E = mc²
Photon Energy Formula
E = hf
E = hc/ λ
Velocity of Wave Formula
v = f λ (speed of the wave = frequency x wavelength)

v = λ/T (speed of the wave = wavelength / period)
de Broglie Wavelength
λ = h/p
Resolution Formula
y = L λ / D