Study your flashcards anywhere!
Download the official Cram app for free >
 Shuffle
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Alphabetize
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Front First
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Both Sides
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Read
Toggle OnToggle Off
How to study your flashcards.
Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key
Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key
H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key
A key: Read text to speech.a key
66 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
Gravitational Constant

G = 6.67 × 1011 Nm2 kg2


Joule

1 J = kilogram meter² / second²


Hertz

1 (Hz) = 1 cycle/second


Planck's Constant

h = 6.6 × 1034 m2 kg / s


Speed of Light

300,000,000 m/s


Speed of Sound

340 m/s


Superposition

waves will superimpose and produce a well defined combined effect.


Constructive Interference

two waves meet at a point where their displacement is in the same direction


Destructive Interference

two waves meet at a point where their displacements are in opposite directions


Hologram

an image that replicates the exact waves of an object that appears to be in three dimensions


Coherent light

a beam of light whose photons all have the same optical properties


Resolution

the amount of small detail visible in an image


Diffraction

the bending of waves around corners


Energy of position (potential energy)

the energy that matter has because of its position or arrangements of atoms or parts


Energy of motion (kinetic energy)

the energy that a body has as a result of its motion


Energy of existence (rest energy)

the energy equivalent to the mass of a particle at rest


Antimatter

matter which consists of antiparticles that have opposite electrical charges


Neutrinos

a particle with no rest mass or charge that spins counterclockwise


Higgs boson

give mass to other particles


Matter/ antimatter anihilation

converts all energy to kinetic energy


Quantum mechanics

theory that predicts how atoms move using odds


Basic Principles of Quantum Mechanics

particles move like waves
all atoms have certain energy levels which emit certain wavelengths of light 

Hidden Variables

phenomena beyond quantum mechanics that are needed to explain an individual event


Entanglement

when two or more objects have to be described with reference to each other


Wavefunction

the encoded possibilities of any given outcome


Bifurcating many worlds

for every decision there are two choices which occur at the same time in another world


ManyWorlds interpretation

parallel universes exist which take the randomness out of quantum mechanics


Copenhagen Interpretation (1927)

says there is no quantum world there are only abstract physical descriptions of events.


Exclusion Principle

two particles cannot have the same position and velocity


John S. Bell

born 1928 said that hidden variables do not work with quantum mechanics


Bell's Inequality

measurements on one part of a quantum system can have instantaneous affects on another part


String Theory

Determines what particles exist and their properties
Determines what forces exist Determines the number of dimensions 

MTheory

theory that encompasses string theory and supergravity


Composition at the creation of the universe

75% hydrogen and 25% helium


Stellar Life cycles

Bigger stars have shorter lives
Size of a star depends on the balance of gravity and fusion 

Main sequence stars

fuse hydrogen into helium


Supernovas

Produce heavy elements past iron
Bright as 100 billion stars Upon death, become neutron stars and pulsars 

Problem with sound in space

sound needs a medium to pass through


Problem with seeing phaser fire

the energy a phaser travels at the speed of light which means you wouldn't be able to see the phaser coming


Problem with invisibility phasing

the bending of light around a spaceship which makes it invisible would mean that the occupants could not see out of the ship


Doppler Compensators

compensates for the relative motion of the origin to the destination while traveling at high speeds


Heisenberg Compensators

compensates for the Heisenberg uncertainty principle which stats that one cannot know the quantum state of a subatomic particle


Moore's Law

computing power doubles every two years


Tycho Brahe

1546 Observed a supernova which did not change positions in the sky with different reference frames


Galileo Galilei

1564 All objects fall at the same rate in a vacuum


Johannes Kepler

1571 Orbits are ellipses


Pierre de Fermat

1601 Light travels from one point to another along the path that takes the least time


Isaac Newton

1643
Gravity is a force (GMm/r^2) which explains Galileo and Kepler's orbit 1) an isolated object with travel in a straight line at a constant velocity 2) F=ma 3)For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction 

Einstein

1878 General Relativity
Special relativity 

Stephen Hawking

1942 Black holes


General Relativity

force of gravity can be replicated by acceleration
light takes a path that takes the least amount of time gravity is a curvature of spacetime we think of gravity as a force when we mistakenly think of spacetime as flat 

Special Relativity

The speed of light is the same for all observers


Blackholes

when escape velocity exceed the speed of light
event horizon 

Escape Velocity Formula

Ve = √(2GM/R)


Radial Acceleration Formula

A=v2/r


Force of Attraction Formula

F=GmM/r2


Lorentz Contraction Formula

Length at speed v = (length at rest) x √[1(v²/c²)]


Lorentz Factor for High Velocity

ϒ = 1/ √[1(v²/c²)]


Lorentz Factor for Small Velocity

ϒ = 1 + ½(v/c)²


Time Dilation Formula

Time observed in motion = (t observed at rest) / √[1(v²/c²)]


Nonrelativistic Kinetic Energy Formula

E = (1/2)mv²


Matter Conversion Formula

E = mc²


Photon Energy Formula

E = hf
E = hc/ λ 

Velocity of Wave Formula

v = f λ (speed of the wave = frequency x wavelength)
v = λ/T (speed of the wave = wavelength / period) 

de Broglie Wavelength

λ = h/p


Resolution Formula

y = L λ / D
