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### 66 Cards in this Set

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 Gravitational Constant G = 6.67 × 10-11 Nm2 kg-2 Joule 1 J = kilogram meter² / second² Hertz 1 (Hz) = 1 cycle/second Planck's Constant h = 6.6 × 10-34 m2 kg / s Speed of Light 300,000,000 m/s Speed of Sound 340 m/s Superposition waves will superimpose and produce a well defined combined effect. Constructive Interference two waves meet at a point where their displacement is in the same direction Destructive Interference two waves meet at a point where their displacements are in opposite directions Hologram an image that replicates the exact waves of an object that appears to be in three dimensions Coherent light a beam of light whose photons all have the same optical properties Resolution the amount of small detail visible in an image Diffraction the bending of waves around corners Energy of position (potential energy) the energy that matter has because of its position or arrangements of atoms or parts Energy of motion (kinetic energy) the energy that a body has as a result of its motion Energy of existence (rest energy) the energy equivalent to the mass of a particle at rest Antimatter matter which consists of antiparticles that have opposite electrical charges Neutrinos a particle with no rest mass or charge that spins counterclockwise Higgs boson give mass to other particles Matter/ antimatter anihilation converts all energy to kinetic energy Quantum mechanics theory that predicts how atoms move using odds Basic Principles of Quantum Mechanics particles move like waves all atoms have certain energy levels which emit certain wavelengths of light Hidden Variables phenomena beyond quantum mechanics that are needed to explain an individual event Entanglement when two or more objects have to be described with reference to each other Wavefunction the encoded possibilities of any given outcome Bifurcating many worlds for every decision there are two choices which occur at the same time in another world Many-Worlds interpretation parallel universes exist which take the randomness out of quantum mechanics Copenhagen Interpretation (1927) says there is no quantum world there are only abstract physical descriptions of events. Exclusion Principle two particles cannot have the same position and velocity John S. Bell born 1928 said that hidden variables do not work with quantum mechanics Bell's Inequality measurements on one part of a quantum system can have instantaneous affects on another part String Theory Determines what particles exist and their properties Determines what forces exist Determines the number of dimensions M-Theory theory that encompasses string theory and supergravity Composition at the creation of the universe 75% hydrogen and 25% helium Stellar Life cycles Bigger stars have shorter lives Size of a star depends on the balance of gravity and fusion Main sequence stars fuse hydrogen into helium Supernovas Produce heavy elements past iron Bright as 100 billion stars Upon death, become neutron stars and pulsars Problem with sound in space sound needs a medium to pass through Problem with seeing phaser fire the energy a phaser travels at the speed of light which means you wouldn't be able to see the phaser coming Problem with invisibility phasing the bending of light around a spaceship which makes it invisible would mean that the occupants could not see out of the ship Doppler Compensators compensates for the relative motion of the origin to the destination while traveling at high speeds Heisenberg Compensators compensates for the Heisenberg uncertainty principle which stats that one cannot know the quantum state of a subatomic particle Moore's Law computing power doubles every two years Tycho Brahe 1546 Observed a supernova which did not change positions in the sky with different reference frames Galileo Galilei 1564 All objects fall at the same rate in a vacuum Johannes Kepler 1571 Orbits are ellipses Pierre de Fermat 1601 Light travels from one point to another along the path that takes the least time Isaac Newton 1643 Gravity is a force (GMm/r^2) which explains Galileo and Kepler's orbit 1) an isolated object with travel in a straight line at a constant velocity 2) F=ma 3)For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction Einstein 1878 General Relativity Special relativity Stephen Hawking 1942 Black holes General Relativity force of gravity can be replicated by acceleration light takes a path that takes the least amount of time gravity is a curvature of spacetime we think of gravity as a force when we mistakenly think of spacetime as flat Special Relativity The speed of light is the same for all observers Blackholes when escape velocity exceed the speed of light event horizon Escape Velocity Formula Ve = √(2GM/R) Radial Acceleration Formula A=v2/r Force of Attraction Formula F=GmM/r2 Lorentz Contraction Formula Length at speed v = (length at rest) x √[1-(v²/c²)] Lorentz Factor for High Velocity ϒ = 1/ √[1-(v²/c²)] Lorentz Factor for Small Velocity ϒ = 1 + ½(v/c)² Time Dilation Formula Time observed in motion = (t observed at rest) / √[1-(v²/c²)] Non-relativistic Kinetic Energy Formula E = (1/2)mv² Matter Conversion Formula E = mc² Photon Energy Formula E = hf E = hc/ λ Velocity of Wave Formula v = f λ (speed of the wave = frequency x wavelength) v = λ/T (speed of the wave = wavelength / period) de Broglie Wavelength λ = h/p Resolution Formula y = L λ / D