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81 Cards in this Set

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body composition
the fat and nonfat components of the human body; important in assessing recommended body weight
Percent body fat
proportional amount of fat in the body based on the person's total weight; includes both essential and storage fat
Lean body mass
body weight without body fat
Recommended body weight
body weight at which there seems to be no harm to human health; healthy weight
overweight
excess body weight against a given standard, such as height or recommended percent body fat; less than obese
Obesity
a chronic disease characterized by excessive body fat in relation to lean body mass; usually at least 30 percent above recommended body weight
essential fat
minimal amount of body fat needed for normal phsiological funcitons; constitutes about 3 percent of total weight in men and 12 percent in women
storage fat
body fat in excess of essential fat; stored in adipose tissue
Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA)
a radiographic technique to measure total body fat mass, fat distribtion pattern, and bone density
hydrostatic weighing
underwater technique to assess body composition; considered the most accurate of the body composition assessment techniques
aquaphobic
having a fear of water
air dispacement
techniqe to assess body composition by calculating the body volume from the air dispaced by an individual sitting inside a small chamber
Bod Pod
commerical name of the equipment that assesses body composition using the air displacement technique
Anthropometric measurement techniques
measurement of body girths at different sites
Skinfold thickness
technique to assess body composition by measuing a double thickness of skin at specific body sites
girth measurements
technique to assess body composition by measuring circumferences at specific body sites
bioelectrical impededance
technique to assess body composition by running a weak electrical current through the body
waist-to-hip ratio
a measurement to assess potential risk for disease based on distribution of fat
body mass index (BMI)
a technique to determine thinness and excessive fatness that incorporates height and weight to estimate critical fat values at which the risk for disease increases
underweight
extremely low body weight
yo-yo dieting
constantly losing and gaining weight
Glycemic index
a measurement that rates the plasma glucose response of carbohydrate-containing foods versus the response produced by the same amount of carbohydrate from a standard souce, usually glucose or white bread
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by self-imposed starvation to achieve and maintain very low body weight
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by a pattern of binge eating and purging in an attempt to lose weight and maintain low body weight
energy-balancing equation
principle that if caloric input equals caloric output, the person will not gain or lose weight. If caloric intake exceeds output, the puerson gains weight; when output exceeds input, the person loses weight
Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)
the average dietary energy (caloric) intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of define age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity, consistent with good health
Weight-regulating mechanism (WRM)
a feature of the hypothalamus (located in the brain) that controls howmuch the body should weigh
setpoint
weight control theory that the body has an established weight and strongly attempts to maintain that weight
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
the lowest level of oxygen consumption necessary to sustain life
very low-calorie diet
a diet that allows an engery intake (consumption) of maximum 800 calories per day
spot reducing
fallacious theory that exercising a specific body part will result in significant fat reduction in that area
cellulite
fat deposits that "bulge out"; these deposits are nothing but enlarged fat cells from excessive accumulation of body fat
activities of daily living
everyday behaviors that people normally do to function in life (cross the street, carry groceries, lift objects, do laundry, sweet floors)
metabloism
all energy and material transformations that occur within living cells; necessary to sustain life
hypertrophy
an increase in the size of the cell (for examle, muscle hypertrophy)
resting metabolism
amount of energy (expressed in mililiters of oxygen per minute or total calories per day) an individual requires during resting conditions to sustain proper body function
anabolic steroids
synthetic versions of the male sex hormone testosterone, which promotes muscle develoment and hypertrophy
muscular strength
the ability of a muscle to exert maximum force against resistance (for example, 1 rep maximum of the bench press exercise)
muscluar endurance
the ability of a muscle to exert submaximal force repeatedly over time
one rep maximum (1RP)
the maximum amount of resistance an individual is able to lift in a single effort
atrophy
decrease in the size of a cell
motor neurons
nerves connecting the central nervous system to the muscle
motor unit
the combination of a motor neuron and the muscle fibers that neuron innervates
slow-twitch fibers
muscle fibers with greater aerobic potential and slow speed of contraction
fast-twitch fibers
muscle fibers with greater anaerobic potential and fast speed of contraction
overload principle
training concept that the demands placed on a system (cardiorespiratory or muscular) must be increased systempatically and progressively over time to cause physiological development or improvement
specificity of training
principle that training must be done with the specific muscle the person is attempting to improve
specific adaptation to imposed demand (SAID) training
training principle that states that for improvements to occur in a specific activity, the exercises performed during a strength-training program should resemble as closely as possible the movement patterns encountered in that particular activity
isometric training
strength-training method in which muscle contractions produce little or no movement because the person pushes or pulls against an immovable object
dynamic training
strength-training method referring to a muscle contraction with movement
concentric
shortening of a muscle during muscle contraction
positive resistance
the lifting, pushing, or concentric phase of a repetition during the performance of a strength-training exercise
eccentric
lengthening of a muscle during muscle contraction
negative resistance
the lowering or eccentric phase of a repetition during the performance of a strength-training exercise
free weights
barbells and dumbbells
fixed resistance
type of exercise in which a constant resistance is moved through a joint's full range of motion
range of motion
entire arc of movement of a given joint
isokinetic training
strength-training method in which the speed of the muscle contraction is kept constant because the equipment (machine) provides resistance that matches the user's force throughout the range of motion
variable resistance
training using special machines equipped with mechanical devices that provide differing amounts of resistance through the range of motion
resistance
amount of weight that is lifted
progressive resistance training
a gradual increase of resistance over a period of time
set
a fixed number of reps. One set of bench presses might be 10 reps
circuit training
alternating exercises by performing them in a sequence of three to six or more
volume (in strength training)
the sum of all the reps performed multiplied by the resistances used during a strength training session
periodization
a training approach that divides the season into cycles, each of which includes systematic variation in intensity and volume of training to enhance fitness and performance
overtraining
an emotional, behavioral, and physical condition marked by increased fatigue, decreased performance, persistent muscle soreness, mood disturbances, and feelings of staleness or burnout as a result of excessive physical training
plyometric exercise
explosive jump training, incorporating speed and strength training to enhace explosiveness
pilates
a training program that uses exercises designed to help strengthen the body's core by developing pelvic stability and abdominal control coupled with focused breathing patterns
flexibility
the ability of a joint to move freely through its full range of motion
dysmenorrhea
painful menstruation
stretching
moving the joints beyond the accustomed range of motion
plastic elongation
permanent lengthening of a soft tissue
elastic elongation
temporary lengthening of soft tissue
ballistic (dynamic stretching)
exercises done with jerky, rapid, bouncy movements, or slow, short, sustained movements
subluxation
partial dislocation of a joint
controlled ballistic stretching
exercises done with slow, gentle, and sustained movements
slow-sustained stretching
exercises in which the muscles are lengthened gradually through a joint's complete range of motion
Propioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)
stretching technique in which muscles are stretched out sequentially with intermittent isometric contractions
intensity (in flexibility exercises)
degree of stretch
repetitions
number of times a given resistance is performed
contraindicated exercises
exercises that are not recommened because they may cause injury