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98 Cards in this Set

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Sedentary Death Syndrome (SeDs)
Dealths that are attributed to a lack of regular physical activity
Life expectancy
How long a person is expected to live, based on birth year
Chronic diseases
illnesses that last a long time
health
a state of complete well-being, and not just the absence of disease or infirmity
healthy life expectancy (HLE)
number of years a person is expected to live in good health, obtained by subtracting ill-health years from the overall life expectancy
physical activity
bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles; requires expenditure of energy and produces progressive health benefits
exercise
a type of physical activity that requires planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement with the intent of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness
moderate physical activity
activity that uses 150 calories of energy per day, or 1,000 calories per week
risk factors
lifestyle and genetic variables that may lead to disease
wellness
the constant and deliberate effort to stay healthy and achieve the highest potential for well-being. it encompasses 7 dimensions - physical, emotional, mental, social, environmental, occupational, and spiritual - and integrates them all into a quality life
physical wellness
good physical fitness and confidence in one's personal ability to take care of health problems
emotional wellness
the ability to understand your own feelings accept your own limitations, and achieve emotional stability
mental wellness
a state in which your mind is engaged in lively interaction with the world around you
social wellness
the ability to relate well to others, both within and outside the family unit
environmental wellness
the capability to live in a clean and safe environment that is not detrimental to health
ecosystem
a community of organisms interacting with each other in a particular environment
occupational wellness
the ability to perform one's job skillfully and effectively under conditions that provide personal and team satisfaction and adequately reward each individual
Spiritual wellness
the sense that life is meaningful, that life has purpose, and that some power brings all humanity together; the ethics, values, and morals that guide us and give meaning and direction to life
Prayer
sincere and humble communication with a higher power
altruism
true concern for the welfare of others
sedentary
a person who is relatively inactive and whose lifestyle is characterized by a lot of sitting
vigorous activity
any exercise that requires a MET level equal to or greater than 6 METs (21 ml/kg/min); 1 MET = energy expenditure at rest, 3.5 ml/kg/min
Physical fitness
the ability to meet the ordinary as well as the unusal demands of daily life safely and effectively without being overly fatigued and still have energy left for leisure and recreational activities
Health-related fitness
fitness programs that are prescribed to improve the overall health of the individual
skill-related fitness
fitness components important for success in skillfull activities and athletic events; encompasses agility, balance, coordination, power, reaction time, and speed
Health fitness standards
the lowest fitness requirements for maintaining good health, decreasing the risk for chronic diseases, and lowering the incidence of muscular-skeletal injuries
metabolic profile
a measurement to assess risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease through plasma insulin, glucose, lipid, and lipoprotein levels
metabolic fitness
improvements in the metabolic profile through a moderate-intensity exercise program in spite of little or no improvement in physical fitness standards
cardiorespiratory endurance
the ability of the lungs, heart, and blood vessels to deliver adequate amounts of oxygen to the cells to meet the demands of prolonged physical activity
physical fitness standards
a fitness level that allows a person to sustain moderate-to-vigorous physical activity without undue fatige; the ability to closely maintain this level throughout life
morbidity
a condition related to or caused by illness or diease
hypokinetic diseases
"hypo" denotes "lack of"; therefore lack of physical activity
alveoli
air sacs in the lungs where oxygen is taken up and carbon dioxide (produced by the body) is released from the blood
hemoglobin
iron-containing protein, found in red blood cells, that transports oxygen
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
a high-energy chemical compound that the body uses for immediate energy
Oxygen uptake (VO2)
the amount of oxygen used by the human body
Aerobic
exercise that requires oxygen to produce the necessary energy (ATP) to carry out the activity
Anaerobic
exercise that does not require oxoygen to produce the necessary energy (ATP) to carry out the activity
Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)
maximum amount of oxygen the body is able to utilize per minute of physial activity, commonly expressed in ml/kg/min. The best indicator of cardiorespiratory or aerobic fitness
cardiac output
the amount of blood pumped by the heart in 1 minute
stroke volume
amount of blood pumped by the heart in 1 beat
workload
load (or intensity) placed on the body during physical activity
Mitochondria
structures within the cells where energy transformations take place
capillaries
smallest blood vessels carrying oxygenated blood to the tissues in the body
recovery time
amount of time the body takes to return to resting levels after exercise
bradycardia
slower heart rate than normal
spygmomanometer
device to measure blood pressure, which uses an inflatable bladder contained within a cuff and a mercury gravity manometer (or aneroid manometer) from which the pressure is read
systolic blood pressure
pressure exerted by blood against walls of arteries during forceful contraction (systole) of the heart, higher of the two numbersin blood pressure readings
diastolic blood pressure
pressure exerted by blood against walls of arteries during relaxation phase (diastole) of the heart; lower of the two numbers in blood pressure readings
vigorous exercise
cardiorespiratory exercise that requires an intensity level above 60% of maximal capacity
intensity (in cardiorespiratory exercise)
how hard a person has to exercise to improve or maintain fitness
heart rate reserve (HRR)
the difference between the maximal heart rate and the resting heart rate
maximal heart rate (MHR)
highest heart rate for a person, related primarily to age
resting heart rate (RHR)
heart rate after a person has been sitting quietly for 15-20 minutes
MET
the rate of energy expenditure at rest; 1 MET is the equivalent of 3/5 ml/kg/min.
rate of perceived exertion (RPE)
a perception scale to monitor or interpret the intensity of aerobic exercise
mode
form of exercise
warm-up
starting a workout slowly
cool-down
tapering off an exercise session slowly
frequency
how often a person engages in an exercise session
cross-training
a combination of aerobic activites that contribute to overall fitness
aerobic dance
a series of exercise routines performed to music
high-impact aerobics
exercises incorporating movements in which both feet are momentarily off the ground at the same time
low-impact aerobics
exercises in which at least one foot is in contact with the ground at all times
step aerobics
a form of exercise that combines stepping up and down from a bench with arm movements
plyometric training
a form of aerobic exercise that requires forceful jumps or springing off the ground immediately after landing from a previous jump
interval training
a system of exercise wherein a short period of intense effort is followed by a specified recovery period according to a prescribed ratio; for instance, a 1:3 work-to-recovery ratio
dysmenorrhea
painful menstruation
amenorrhea
cessation or regular or menstrual flow
thermogenic response
amount of energy required to digest food
heat cramps
muscle spasms caused by heat-induced changes in electrolyte balance in muscle cells
heat exhaustion
heat-related fatigue
heat stroke
emergency situation resulting from the body being subjected to high atmostpheric temperatures
hypothermia
a breakdown in the body's ability to generate heat; a drop in body temperature below 95 degrees F
exercise intolerance
inability to function during exercise because of excessive fatigue or extreme feelings of discomfort
side stitch
a sharp pain in the side of the abdomen
shin splints
injury to the lower leg characterized by pain and irritation in the shin region
functional independence
ability to carry out activities of daily living without assistance from other individuals
overtraining
an emotional, behavioral, and physical condition marked by increased fatigue, decreased performance, persistent muscle soreness, mood disturbances, and feelings of staleness or burnout as a result of excessive training
volume (of training)
the total amount of training performed in a given work period (day, week, month, or season)
periodization
a training approach that divides the season into cycles, each of which includes systematic variation in intensity and volume of training to enhance fitness and performance
kinds of infectious diseases
tuberculosis, diptheria, influenza, kidney disease, polio, infant disease
chronic diseases
results from bad decisions. heart disease, cancer, emphysema, cirrhosis of the liver
physical activity more prevalent in :
women, minorites, older, poor, and less educated
"Big Three"
tobacco, alcohol, poor diet & nutrition
2010 goals
more health conscious behaviors, health benefits extended to everyone, health promotion and disease prevention
benefits
higher metabolism, body becomes better at using fat during exercise, better posture and immunie system, more bone mass, avoid osteoporosis, sleep better
how much aerobic exercise is required to decrease risk of cardio disease?
2,000 calories per week, 300 per day
endorphins
released from the pituity gland in brand, a "physical high" during aerobic exercise
What do astmatic people do?
need proper emedication, gradual warm up and cool down, warm humid conditions, drink water
how long after a meal to exercise?
about 2 hours
4 common causes to injuries
high-impact injuries, rapid conditioning programs, inproper shoes and training surfaces, and anatomical predisposition
tips for acute sports injuries
R = rest
I = Ice application
C = compression
E = elevation
Benefits of cardio disease
higher oxygen uptake, increased oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, lower resting heart rate, increase in cardio muscular strength, lower heart rate at given work load, incrased number and size of mitochondria, increased number of functional cappilaries, faster recovery time, lower blood pressure, and increase in fat-burning enzymes
factors that affect VO2max
genetics, level of training, gender, age, and body composition
mode
type of exercise (biking, swimming, jogging, etc.)
duration
minimum of 20 min - 60 min
frequency
3-5 times a week