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99 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
repro organ
testes and ovaries
functions of gonads
produce germ celss

secrete sex steroids
accessory reproductive organs
ducts and glands emptying into the ducts the used to transport sperm and eggs from gonads
gonadotropin 2 actions at the gonads

release steroid sex hormones
what feedback to inhibit secretion of GnRH from hypothalmus and LH and FSH from AP?
inhibin and sex steroids
differentiation and development of germ cells into gametes
developing gametes
germ cells
2 steps of gametogenisis
1. proliferation of primordial germ cells

2. differentiation into gametes
proliferation of germ cells
when does proliferation of female's germ cells occur?
in females proliferation of germ cells by mitosis occurs entirely during embryological development
when does proliferation of male's germ cells occur?
in males proliferation of germ cells by mitosis occurs in embryo and again starting at puberty and throughout life to supply sperm
number of chromosomes in humans
23 diploid
DNA replication
produces sister chromatids (tetraploid)
Mitosis 4 steps
1. DNA replication which produces sister chromatids (tetraploid)
2. chromatids condense and become attached to spindle fibers
3. sister chromatids seperate at centromere and each moves toward opposite poles
4. Cell begins to constrict and cell pinches in half to form 2 cells
produces gametes with single copy of 23 haploid chromosomes
number of cell divisions in meiosis
number of cell divisions in mitosis
steps of meiosis
DNA is replicated to form sister chromatids

Recombination (cross over) occurs between homologous chromosomes

First cell division occurs with homologous pairs of chromosomes seperating and randomly segregating into the 2 cells giving diploid cells

in the second cell division, there is no DNA replication. The sister chromatids separate and move to the daughter cells. This gives each cell a single copy of each chromosome (haploid)
In meiosis, what would happen if recombination did not occur?
the DNa in the sister cells of the second meiotic division would be identical. Re
Purpose of recombination
reassorting of genes to create unique offspring
What allows variability of offsprin?
due to crossing over wi chromosomes and random segregation of chromosomes
what are at least 1/2 of miscarriages and spontaneous abortions during the first trimester of pregnancy and 1/3 of spontaneous abortions in the second trimester due to?
meiotic errors which cause chromosomal abnomalities
oupouch of ab wall, divided internally into two sacs, one for each testis. this allows Spermatogenesis to occur at a temp several degrees below core body temp
Where do testes first develop?
first develop in ab cavity and at week 7 of gestation drop into the scrotum
What happens if testes do not descend into scrotum?
called a retained testicle. There will be no spermatogenisis since the temp is too hi. However testosterone is nomal
Muscle that moves the testicles toward the body in cold or in stressful environment
cremaster muscles
Parts of the testis
seminferous tubules
rete testis
efferent ductules
vas deferens
where are sperm made?
in testes
where does spermatogenesis occur?
seminferous tubules are the site of sperm formation
part of testes, where sperm starts and its pathway
seminferous tubules (its made)-> Rete testes -> efferent ductules -> epidiymis -> vas deferens
parts of male repro tract, after sperm leaves the testes
seminal vesicle -> prostate -> ejaculatory ducts -> bulbourethral gland -> urethra
duct that goes from seminal vesicle and joins vas deferens
ejaculatory duct
duct that transports sperm out of the penis
undifferentiated germ cells
process of spermatogenesis
begining at puberty, spermatogonia divide mitotoically to make clonal spermatogonia

differentiation of spermatogonia makes primary spermatocytes

these cells undergo first meiotic divison to make secondary spermatocytes

the secondary spermatocytes undergo second meiotic division to make spermatids

the spermatids differentiate more to make spermatozoa (4 sperm per meiosis)
when does spermatogenisis occur?
at puberty
time it takes for entire process of spermatogenisis
64 days for entire process
number of sperm made per day
30 million!
where are sertoli cells?
in seminferous tubule
Function of sertoli cells
to support development of spermatocytes

form blood testes barrier via tight junctions

secrete androgen binding protein and inhibin
where are leydig cells?
between seminferous tubules
function of leydig cells between the seminferous tubules?
secrete testosterone
describe the head of the spermatozoa
it has an acrosome with enzymes that dissolve zona pellucida of the egg and allow penetraion into the ova

it contains the nucleus
midpiece section of spermatozoa
mitochondria in it to provide energy
tail of spermaotozoa
has flagellum for motility
sperm transport
seminferous tubules -> rete testes -> effernt tubules -> epididymis
when do sperm become motile?
when the reach the epidymis. at the epididymis, sperm maturation occurs
since sperm are not motile until the reach the epididymis, how do sperm move from seminferous tubules to epidymis?
by pressure created by the continuous formation of fluid by the sertoli cells.
how are sperm transported from epididymis to vas deferens?
transport occurs by paristaltic contraction of the vas deferens
where is sperm stored?
in epididymis and vas deferens
where does sperm maturation occur?
corpora cavernosa
vascular compartment of penis
penis during symp stimulation
at rest, symp nervous system causes constriction of arteries so corpora cavernosa contains little blood and the penis is flaccid
penis during parasymp stimulation
causes release of nitric oxides which causes relaxation of arteries through increase of cGMP and filling of compartments causing erection

occurs via spinal reflex with input from higher centers
treatment for erectile dysfunction
phophodiesterase type 5 metabolize cGMP so drugs to help erectile dysfunction inhibit PDE5 like viagra, levitra, and cialis. This allows increase in cGMP to maintain erection :)
secretion from glands form semen and movemnt of semen into proximal urethra
what contributes the most fluid to to semen?
seminal vesicles
describe symp system role in emission
symp stimulation of smooth m. in mas deferens causes sperm and fluids to move from the vas deferens into proximal urethra.

symp system also stimulates fluid secretion from seminal vessicles, prostrate, and bulbourethral glands into urethra during emission
what secretes fluids into the urethra during emission?
seminal vessicles, prostrate, and bulbourethral glands

seminal vessicles contributes the most fluid
sperm and fluids from acessory glands
semen content
10% sperm

the rest is nutrients, electorlytes, buffers, and prostaglandins
volume of semen
2-6 mL
pH of semen
sperm count in semen
over 20 million/mL
normal motility of semen
over fifty percent motile
discharge of semen from urethra
describe ejaculation
symp stimulation of urethra smooth muscle

somatic stimulation of skeletal m. at base of penis

during ejaculation sphincter to bladder is closed
how often do males secrete GnRH from hypothalmus?
pulsitile bursts every 90 min.
Effects of FSH on Sertoli cells
stimulates spermatogenisis by making and secreting Growth factors

stimulate synthesis and secretion of androgen binding protein which concentrates testosterone in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules

produces inhibin wich negatively feeds back on AP and inhibits FSH secretion
Effect of LH on leydig cells
increased testosterone producation and release through increased expression of testosterone synthesizing enzymes

testosterone neg feeds back on AP and hypothalmus
androgenic effects of testosterone
diffuses into sertoli cells and initiates and supports spermatogenesis

maintains acessory organs, such glands, smooth m. , etc

induces 2ary sex characterisitics at puberty (hair on body, face and distribution of fat)

behavior(sex drive,aggresion)
anabolic effects of testosterone
proteins synthesis
in brain what is testosterone converted into?
are testosterone and dihydrotestosterone free or bound to proteins in plasma?
bound to proteins. only the free form is active
when do oogonia undergo mitotic division in female?
at 6-24 weeks of gestation
describe process of oogenesis
oogonia undergo mitosis from 6-24 wks of gestation

oogonia differentiate into primary oocytes and begin first meiotic division at 9 wks of gestation but do NOT undergo division bc they enter meiotic arrest at 6 mo. of gestation

at puberty meiotic activity begins again. oocytes develop and undergo first meiotic division to make secondary oocyte right before ovulation. of the 2 daughter oocytes, only one has the cytoplasm and the other contains only 1/2 the chromosome and it is called the polar body(nonfunctional)

at fertilization, in the uterine tube the oocyte undergoes the 2nd meiotic division and again a polar body w/ half of oocyte DNA is extruded by the cell and degenerates. resulting cell is called a ovum with contains a single copy of the maternal chromosomes
what does meiosis of primary oocyte make?
one egg and 2 polar bodies

one oocyte makes one ovum
when do primordial follicles form?
when oogonia begins meiosis and develops into a primary oocytes at about 16 weeks of gestation
preganulosa cells
single layer of spindle shaped cells surrounding primary oocyte

gap junctions form between pregranulosa and oocyte
connects the uterus and the vagina
2 cell layers of the uterus
1. myometrium
2. endometrium-ep layer that is sloughed off during menses
how are primary follicles made?
at the beginning of menstrual cycle primordial follicles are recruited and develop into primary follicles
what do pregranulosa cells become?
cuboidal and differentiate into granulosa cells.
what do granulosa cells secrete?
mucopolysaccharides and glycoproteins to form the zona pelucida between the oocyte and the granulosa
What do granulosa cells secrete?
estrogen, progesterone, and inhibin
describe theca cells
cells from conective tissue in ovary are recrited to follicle and differentiate into theca cells. These cells surround granulosa cells outside of he basement membrane
what do theca cells acquire?
LH receptors and ability to secrete steroids
Antral follicle
Granulosa cells secrete fluid and form fluid filled space called the antrum. LH receptros are on the granulosa cells
what is the dominant follicle?
it is the determined follicle selected about 7 days into the cycle
folliular atresia
the other follicles, not the dominant follicle, that are degenerated without ovulating
what surrounds oocyte?
layer of granulosa cells which are connected to follicle by cumulus oophorus
day 14 of menstraul cycle
rupture of follicular and ovarian walls due to enzymatic digestion

secondary oocyte covered by corona radiata make up of zona pellucida and a layer of granulosa cells
Formation of corpus leteum (yellow body)
after egg and antral fluid are lost, remaining granulosa and teca cells of the follicle are transformed into the corpus luteum
What does corpus luteum secretes?
What happens to corpus luteum if no fertilization occurs?
its active for about 10 days then it degenerates
follicular phase
from beginning of menstration until ovulatioin
luteal phase
from ovulation until the beginning of menstration
2 phases of mentral cycle
follicular phase

luteal phase