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227 Cards in this Set

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This is the transfer of energy to a patient to produce an increase or decrease in tissue temperature
Thermal agents
Examples of this include Ultrasound,and phonophresis
Deep Heating
Examples of this include hot pack, microwave heated towels, rice, gel packs
Superficial heating
Examples of this include cold packs, ice massage, vapor sprays, bags of frozen peas, ice cubes
Cooling agents
This is the transfer of heat from one object to another - heat goes from higher temperature to lower temperature material. Ex: Hot pack, paraffin bath, cold pack.
Conduction
This is the transfer of heat between a surface and a moving medium or agent. Ex: Fluidotherapy, whirlpool.
Convection
This is the transfer of heat from one form to another (sound waves transferred to heat; vibration of molecules in tissue result in increased friction produces heat). Ex: Ultrasound
Conversion
This is when heat is applied to cutaneous tissue; decreases pain by closing the pain gate mediated by the spinal cord
Superficial heat
Name some examples of superficial heat
Moist hot packs, paraffin, heating pads
This type of heat is used to stretch skin, joint, & fascia. You use it when you want to increase elasticity.
Superficial heat
What is the depth of penetration for superficial heat?
1-2 centimeters
Between moist and dry superficial heat, which one penetrates to a slightly deeper level?
Moist
This type of heat includes ultra sound, short wave diathermy and microwave
Deep Heat
This type of heat has a depth of penetration 5-8 centimeters depending on the type of deep heat used and the tissue type.
Deep Heat
This type of heat is used to stretch deep structures: joint capsule, contractures.
Deep Heat
True or False: According to Weinberger, deep heating in RA decreases intrarticular temperature and inflammation.
False. Deep heating in RA increases intrarticular temperature and inflammation.
According to Weinberger this kind of heating is effective in heating periarticular tendons. Increases tendon excursion = more lengthened tendons
Superficial Heating (moist hot pack)
According to Weinberger this type of heating may speed reduction of inflammatory process.
Non-thermal heating (phonopheresis)
According to Weinberger this type of heating may speed reduction of inflammatory process.
Non-thermal heating (phonopheresis)
According to Weinberger this type of heating may speed reduction of inflammatory process.
Non-thermal heating (phonopheresis)
This type of heat application can be used prior to ROM, occupational performance, PNF, MFR and NDT
Hot packs
This type of heat application can be used for sub-acute inflammation - osteoarthritis, sports injuries (> 2-3 days, strains and old sprains
Hot packs
This type of injury results from excessive physical effort
Strain
This type of injury is to ligament around a joint (pain, swelling, discoloration)
Sprain
Treatment for this injury includes support rese, alternate heat & cold after initial acute stage
Sprain
Tx for this injury includes RICE
Strain
What does RICE stand for?
Rest, ice, compress, elevate
This type of heat application promotes tissue healing and can be used for muscle spasm, neuralgia, decreased ROM and flexibility and joint stiffness
Hot packs
A hydrocollator unit is used with which heat application?
Hot packs
This heat application has these advantages. Easy to apply, low level skill application, covers various contours of body.
Hot packs
Place these steps in treatment application of hot packs in the correct order:
Place the hot pack over the area to be treated
Check the pt 5 min after application to determine heat tolerance
Wrap Hot Moist Pack (HMP)
Set a timer to desired time
Remove HMP after 20-30 minutes of application
Secure the HMP in place to prevent migration
Remove the hot pack from the hydrocollator unit with tongs
1)Remove the hot pack from the hydrocollator unit with tongs
2)Wrap Hot Moist Pack (HMP)
3)Place the hot pack over the area to be treated
4)Secure the HMP in place to prevent migration
5)Set a timer to desired time
6)Check the pt 5 min after application to determine heat tolerance
7)Remove HMP after 20-30 minutes of application
The disadvantages of this heat application include that it requires constant monitoring, no method of temp control, decreased tolerance to wt
hot packs
How many layer of towels should you use with hot packs?
6-8 layers
What is paraffin combined with when heated?
mineral oil
The effect of this tx is therapeutic heating or warming of superficial tissue.
Paraffin
The indications for this heat application include arthritis, joint stiffness, contracture, ligament tightness, scar tissue, sudek's atrophy/RSD, tenosynovitis
Paraffin
Contraindications for this heat application include open wounds, dermatological disorders,(psoritic arthritis), PVD with compromised circulation, acute sprains, Raynauds and tumors
Paraffin
Advantages of this heat application include: Inexpensive, easy to apply, achieve good contact with contoured areas, body part can be elevated, oil lubricates and softens skin, low specific heat allows higher tx temp, low thermal conductivity allows tissues to heat slowly
Paraffin
True or false: Hardened paraffin should not be used as an exercise tool
False, hardened paraffin can be used as an exercise tool
Some disadvantages of this modality include, messy & time consuming, can't use over open sound, contamination with reuse, dependent position, effective only on distal extremities, no method of temp control and heating only lasts 20 min.
Paraffin
What should therapist do before a paraffin bath?
Remove jewelry from patient and wash area to be treated
How should therapist instruct pt to dip hand in paraffin bath?
with fingers spread apart and wrist into the paraffin bath
How long should you wait before dipping pts hand again in paraffin bath?
When paraffin has solidified & opaque
How many times and for how much time should pts hand be dipped into paraffin?
8-10 times for 3-5 seconds
After pts hand is covered in paraffin, what is the next step for dip and wrap?
Wrap pts hand in plastic bag, then towel for 20-30 minutes to maintain heat
For the Dip and Immersion technique of paraffin bath, what is the benefit?
Provides vigorous heating
In the dip and immersion technique of paraffin bath, how long should pt reimmerse in the tank?
20-30 minutes
What is the purpose of dip and wrap method of paraffin bath?
provides mild heating
Name two precautions for paraffin
Check thermostat, keep CO2 fire extinguisher handy
This PAM can be used for adhesions, pain relief, arthritis, open wounds, tenosynovitis, sprains, edema control and joint stiffness
Whirlpool
Contraindications for this PAM include edema, skin rash, infection in part immersed, bleeding, recent skin grafts
Whirlpool
If whirlpool is used with a bleeding pt, what can happen?
increase bleeding via venous circulation & vasodilation
If you use whirlpool with a pt with PVD, what temp water should you use?
Lukewarm
This PAM's therapeutic effects include, aids in debridement, stimulation and formation of granulation, raise oxygen level, antibodies, and leukocytes, removes metabolites, can help decrease pain and relaxation
Whirlpool
What are three advantages of whirlpool?
Complete contact with client's skin, Allows m/m during application, Water heats, cools and controls pain
What are three disadvantages of whirlpool?
Distal extremity in dependent position, costly to maintain, must keep this clean to avoid spread of infection
What is the most common water temp in whirlpools for mild heating?
96-98 degrees
Name three additives for whirlpools
povidone iodine
chlorine bleach
chloramine T
Match the following to one of three additive to whirlpools

* Povidone Iodine * Chlorine Bleach * Chloramine T

Aids in control of infection but corrodes stainless

antimicrobial, does not corrode

not effective in the presence of blood & tissue
* Chlorine Bleach - Aids in control of infection but corrodes stainless

* Chloramine T - antimicrobial, does not corrode

* Povidone Iodine - not effective in the presence of blood & tissue
How long is typical treatment in whirlpool?
20-30 min
Name three precautions for whirlpools?
Edema, pressure on axilla, electrical safety
What temp in whirlpool is used for acute inflammation?
Cold - 32-79 degrees
What temp in whirlpool is used for exercise and acute inflammation if colder is not tolerated?
Tepid - 79-92 degrees
What temp in whirlpool is used for Open wounds, medically compromised pt with circulatory, sensory or cardiac disorders and decrease tone?
Neutral warmth - 92 - 96 degrees
What temp in whirlpool is used for Increase mobility in burn pt?
Mild warmth - 96-98 degrees
What temp in whirlpool is used for controlling pain?
Hot - 99-104 degrees
What temp in whirlpool is used for Increse soft tissue extesibility, chronic conditions (limited body area only)?
Very hot - 104-110 degrees
What temp should you not go above in whirlpool?
110 degrees
What is the temp range and how long should fluidotherapy be used?
100-118 degrees, 20 - 30 minutes
How is heat transferred in fluidotherapy?
convection
The indications for this PAM include flexion tendon repairs, extensor tendon repairs, contractures, joint stiffness, acute soft tissue injury, adhesions, and desensitization.
Fluidotherapy
Containdications for this PAM include decreased sensation, decreased circulation, respiratory problems, edema, open wounds and infections.
Fluidotherapy
If using fluidotherapy with a pt with open wounds, what should be done first?
Cover wound with plastic bag to prevent contact with particles
Name three advantages of fluidotherapy
pt may exercise during heating, portholes allow OT to manipulate body part during heating, easy to administer
Name a major disadvantage of fluidotherapy
expensive
What is another name for cold therapy?
Cryotherapy
This PAM is used to minimize the initial reaction of tissues to local trauma. The application can cause vasoconstriction, decreased blood flow, decreased local metabolic activity, decreased local temp and decreased pain. It can also be used to break up muscle spasm and decrease spasticity.
Cold (Cryotherapy)
Using therapeutic techniques of stretch in cold therapy minimizes what?
Edema
Contraindications for this PAM include Raynaud's phenomenon, regenerating peripheral nerve, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), superfical main branch of nerve, directly over open wound
Cold therapy
Name three advantage of cold therapy
Easy to use, Cost varies, ROM during application
Name two disadvantage of cold therapy
Uncomfortable, Supervision to ensure timely transition from on temp to another
What should you ask Dr before using ice packs?
If they want skin contact if not indicated on order
What is the tx time for cold packs?
10-15 min
What temp are cold packs stored at?
-5 degrees C
How often should you use cold packs to control pain and inflammation?
every 1-2 hours
What are four sensations that may come from cold packs?
cold, burning, aching, numbness (CBAN)
What are three alternatives to cold packs?
ice towels, cold bath (64 degrees), 1/2 water & 1/2 alcohol placed in a ziplock bag (conforms)
What are the two indications for ice massage?
stretching exercises, before friction massage
Name four contraindications for ice massage
cold sensitivity, raynauds disease, regenerating peripheral nerves, compromised vascular tissue/disease
Name three advantages of ice massage
target specific tx area, used for acute injuries, cools intramuscular temp more rapidly than ice pack
How should ice be applied in ice massage?
water is frozen in paper cup or on a popsicle stick and applied directly to the skin in a circular or longitudinal motion of the targeted area
Name two disadvantages of ice massage
Direct ice on skin may increase pat discomfort, plan for melting ice - cover pt to avoid moisture
How long should you continue ice massage?
10-15 min or until pt experiences (CBAN)
This PAM in indicated for arthritis of peripheral joints, joint sprains, deQuervains, toughen amputee stumps, edema management, decrease pain, increase circulation
Contrast Baths
The contraindications of this PAM include diabetes, raynauds, replants (crush injuries), wound healing, buergers disease inflamed/thrombotic arteries in leg or foot
Contrast Baths
What should the water temps be for contrast baths?
Cold - 55-65
Warm - 100-111
How long should you immerse pts hand in warm and cold water for contrast bath?
Immerse pt in warm water for 10 minutes. Immerse in cold water 1 minute. return to warm water for 4 minutes then cold for 1 min. complete 4:1 cycle two more times. repeat for 30 minutes. End with warm water.
The indications for this PAM include myofascial trigger points, muscle spasms, decreased ROM, Acute stiff neck (torticollis), acute bursitis of shoulder, ankle sprain, headaches, referred pain from trigger points.
Vapocoolant Sprays
What are the two main ingredients in Vapocoolant Sprays?
Fluoromethane and liquid ethyl chloride
Name four contraindications for Vapocoolant Sprays
Allergy to Fluoromethane or ethyl chloride sprays, open wounds, adverse reactions to cold, use around eyes
Name three advantages of Napocoolant sprays
easy to use, cost effective, able to target specific area
Name three disadvantages of Vapocoolant sprays
Requires prescription to use as. May cause frostbite if not used competently. Ethyl chloride is flammable & becomes general anesthetic if inhaled.
Give three examples of superficial heat
moist hot packs, paraffin baths, heating pads
Name six kinds of burns
Thermal, electrical, chemical, radiation, smoke inhalation and friction
Name five causes of thermal burns
steam, not liquids, not metals, extreme cold
What are 80% of burns caused by?
scalds/flame
What are two causes of electrical burns?
electric current, lightning
What happens to 5% of people who suffer from electrical burns?
cardiac, respiratory arrest
What do the severity of chemical burns depend on?
duration/contact with skin, whether there is involvement with lungs
Name two types of radiation burns.
laser, sunburn
Name the three categories of burns
1st, 2nd and 3rd
This category of burn is superficial and only the epidermis is affected.
1st degree
This category of burn is painful, dry and without blisters. Regeneration occurs rapidly (4-7 days)
1st degree
An example of this category of burn is sunburns.
1st degree
This category of burn destroys entire epidermis & dermis down to subcutaneous tissue and may destroy muscle & tendon
3rd degree
This category of burn is not painful because nerves are damaged
3rd degree
In this category of burn, regeneration of epidermis occurs at wound margins only. Spontaneous healing is not possible.
3rd degree
In this category of burn, skin grafting is required to promote wound healing, minimize scarring, and contractures
3rd degree
In this category of burn, peripheral vascular system is compromised (increased edema) and pt may require eschartotomey or fasciotomy.
3rd degree
This category of burn is superficial
1st degree
This category of burn is Partial Thickness and Superficial
2nd degree
This category of burn is Partial Thickness and Deep
2nd degree
This category of burn is Full Thickness
3rd degree
This category of burn is Full Thickness
3rd degree
In this category of burn, the epidermis and some portion of the dermis is injured
2nd degree
This category of burn is painful, red, exudative, subcutaneous edema and sensation is intact
2nd degree
In this category of burn regeneration of the epidermis occurs by epithelization and may be very painful
2nd degree
In this category of superficial burn epithelization occurs in 10-14 days without scarring. Will have fluid filled blisters
2nd degree
In this category of deep burn, 3-4 weeks for epithelization may require grafting scarring occurs. Pressure sensation is intact, decreased light touch, there is modled yellow yuckiness and it can convert to full thickness if infected
2nd degree
This type of wound involves the epidermal layer and superficial dermis and is AKA partial thickness wound.
Epidermal Wound
This type of wound heals by regeneration, without scar formation, & healing time is short
partial thickness or epidermal wound
This type of wound heals by regeneration, without scar formation, & healing time is short
partial thickness or epidermal wound
This type of wound involves the complete epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, these wounds involve tissue, muscle & bone.
Full thickness or dermal wound
These type of wounds heal with scar formation and healing is complex and slow
dermal or full-thickness wounds
This skin graft is pts own skin, skin harvested from an unburned area (donor site) such as thigh, low back or outer arm. It is painful, red and scarring is possible
Autograft
This type of graft the dermatome set to remove a predetermined thickness of skin and contains epidermis and superficial dermis
Split thickness graft (STSG)
This type of graft is done under anesthesia and covers a large area
Mesh graft
This type of graft used a strip of unaltered skin to be used on face, hads, nect
Sheet graft
This type of graft consist of full dermal thickness (both dermis and epidermis
Full thickness graft (FTG)
This type of graft uses skin from another species. It is a temporary graft that allows donor sites to heal.
Xenograft or heterograft
This type of graft is from same species. Cadaver skin is frozen and kept in skin banks. It is temporary and lasts 2-3 weeks and must be on immunosuppressants.
Homograft or allograft
This is a layer of skin or other tissue and is sx separated and attached.
Flaps/Plasty
This is bio-brain synthetic skin, nylon mesh, collagen, silicone
Biological
Name the three stage of maturation of scars
Immature (0-4 mo), Semi-mature (0-8 mo), Mature (8-12 mo)
In this stage of scar maturation the scar is red, warm, raised and rigid. It is active and will respond to compression.
Immature
In this stage of scar maturation the scar tissue is becoming pinker, less rigid, and not as warm. Compression initiated now may still be effective. Scar will conform to pressure and remain flat on the surface.
Semi-mature
In this stage of scar maturation the scar is paler, flatter, and softer. Scar will not respond to tx. Requires surgical intervention.
Mature
True or False. Pressure should be applied to a scar ASAP
True, the sooner the better
How might pressure impact hypertophic scarring? Name 6 effects of pressure.
* Hastens the scar maturation.
* Thins the dermis.
* Alters the biomechanical structure of the scar.
* Decreases blood flow to the area.
* Reorganized collagen bundles.
* Decreases tissue water content.
This is a thick, raised, firm irregular margined scar. It primarily occurs in people of color and grows away from the surface
Keloid
What is the anti-deformity position for the neck?
neutral/slight extension
What is the anti-deformity position for the chest/abdomen
trunk extension, shoulder retraction
What is the anti-deformity position for the Axilla
shoulder abduction 90 - 100 degrees
What is the anti-deformity position for the elbow/forearm
elbow extension, forearm neutral
What is the anti-deformity position for the wrist/hand
wrist extension 30 degrees, thumb abducted and extended, MCP flexion 50 - 70 degrees, IP extension
What is the anti-deformity position for the hip/thigh
neutral extension, hips 10 - 15 degrees abduction
What is the anti-deformity position for the knee/lower leg
knee extension; anterior burn; slight flexion
What is the anti-deformity position for the ankle/foot
neutral to 1 - 5 degrees dorsal flexion
What is the anti-deformity position for the ears/face
prevent pressure
This is a disease in which the beta cell of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas do not produce enough insulin, or in which the body is resistant to the insulin which is produced
Diabetes
The symptoms of this include rapid onset, generalized weakness, rapid weight loss (eating lots though) and water loss due to increased metabolism
Type I diabetes
The symptoms of this include itching, chronic overeating desensitizes insulin receptors and can reverse process (eat right and exercise)
Type II diabetes
The symptoms of this include extreme thirst, heartburn/nausea,. fast deep respirations, excessive urination with ketones in the urine, headache, blurred vision, constipation and coma if not treated.
Ketoacidosis
This complication of diabetes is when changes occur in the body's small and large blood vessels because the body is not able to process fat efficiently. Fatty substances build up on the walls of the arteries narrowing passage. Can cause: Hypertension, heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease (skin ulcers and gangrene), arterial insufficiency, claudication.
Artherosclerosis
This complication of diabetes is damage to the small blood vessels on the eye that causes vessels to bulge and lead fluids into the retina causing blurred vision. The assoc. bleeding, scaring, and retinal detachment may lead to blindness. Halos, floaters, flashing lights, eye pain.
Diabetic Retinopathy
This complication of diabetes is Decreased sensation affect nerves responsible for controlling sensation in the feet, hands, and joints.
* Distal to proximal
* LE to UE
* More sugar destroys myelin sheath = reduced conduction and damage to cranial nerves.
May have Parasthesia, numbness, loss of sensation (touch, pain, temp., propreoception)
Peripheral neuropathy
This complication of diabetes is assoc. with arthrosclerosis and impairs kidney's ability to filter waste products.
Chronic renal failure
Name four complications of diabetes.
Artherosclerosis, diabetic retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and chronic renal failure
This occurs when Blood glucose levels are too high above 140-180 mg/dl and too little insulin in the blood; blood sugar level is too high.
Hyperglycemia
Symptoms of this condition include extreme thirst, excessive urination, constipation, heartburn/nausea, headache, fast deep respirations, blurred vision, coma if not treated
Hyperglycemia
What should you do for hyperglycemia?
-Check blood glucose level
-Check urine for ketones
-Drink water
-Call physician if blood glucose remains 180 mg/dl for 2 days
What should you do for hyperglycemia?
-Check blood glucose level
-Check urine for ketones
-Drink water
-Call physician if blood glucose remains 180 mg/dl for 2 days
In this condition Blood sugar levels may drop below 50 mg/dl for men when accompanied by symptoms and 40 mg/dl for women when accompanied by symptoms.
Too much insulin in the blood; blood glucose level is too low.
-Missing or delaying meals
-Too much insulin
Hypoglycemia
The symptoms of this conditions include Extreme hunger, Sweating, Dizziness, Cold and clammy, Tremors, Palpitations, Weakness, Slurred speech, Nervousness, Incoordination, Confusion
Hyppoglycemia
This allows glucose from the blood to enter muscles and cells.
Insulin
This allows the body to metabolize sugar for energy.
Insulin
This, combined with meal planning and exercise deeps blood sugar in target zone.
Insulin
This keeps the body from sending extra sugar into the blood when there is more stress.
Insulin
What is the A1C test?
Memory glucose test over 2-3 months (+ ketones)
What is the fastest site for insulin injection?
Abdomen
Where is insulin injection slowest?
Buttocks
Name some things that should be included in an OT evaluation of diabetes.
ADL's, Sensory testing, vocational history, psychosocial adjustment, visual perception, UE ROM, strength, coordination, sensation, leisure interests & skills, physical conditioning, need for ancillary services, clinical observation of skin, home safety, pt's ability to inspect skin, community mobility, presence of edema, safety awareness
What things can an OT do in tx of the diabetic pt?
Splinting (wrist cock-up splint), adaptive equipment and compensatory techniques, work simplification and energy conservation, avoid risk of injury to the lower extremities, teach safety precautions and compensation for visual and sensory loss (syringe magnifier, large screen computers), have sugar available in tx setting (hard candy, oj), work on meal preparation that fits into dietary restrictions, exercise (regular schedule, decreases blood sugar)
List 4 functions of the kidneys
* Filter waste products from the blood
* Absorb water and nutrients
* Regulate the concentration of salt and potassium
* Maintain normal acid base
What is the normal ph of the blood?
7.45
What happens if the ph level is < 7.45?
blood too acidic = Acidosis & results in diabetes
What happens if the ph level is > 7.45?
blood too alkaline = Alkolosis & results in nausea, vomiting (too much CO2 – hyperventilate)
What is the functional unit of the kidney
Nephron
Name three parts of the nephron
Bowmans capsule, Glomerulus, tubules
This part of the nephron collects filtered urine
Bowmans capsule
This part of the nephron filters blood & fluid across capillaries
Glomerulus
This part of the nephron transit of urine from renal pelvis to ureter
Tubules
This type of renal failure develops suddenly, can be tx successfully and is reversible
Acute
This type of renal failure is caused by decreased blood flow to the kidneys, trauma, burns, placenta previa, surgical shock, transfusion and alcoholism
Acute
What are some symptoms of acute renal failure?
* Gastrointestinal distress
* Breath odor of ammonia due to the accumulation of nitrogen in the blood
* Increased potassium buildup (hyperkalemia) may cause muscle weakness an slow the heart to the point of cardiac arrest
Name three types of renal failure.
Acute, Chronic, End Stage
The causes of this type of real failure include hypertension, glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, analgesics, pyuris and diabetic nephopothy
Chronic Renal Failure
What are some symptoms of Chronic Renal Failure?
* Pulmonary edema
* Painful itching
* Altered nervous system function
* Reduced mental ability
* Reduced bone density – can’t absorb calcium
* Change in skin color – ashen, pale, gray, no color
This is when kidney function has deteriorated < 20 – 25%, the kidneys are not capable of sustaining life. Damage is irreversible.
End stage renal disease
What are some residual complications of end stage renal disease?
* Uremia – Toxic condition associated with urea buildup
* Hypertension
* CHF – fluid overload, left ventricle involved 1st, the right then shuts down
* Anemia
* Gastrointestinal problems – buildup of ammonia
* Urinary infections
* Dementia type symptoms
* Psychosocial – depression – medication may be excreted through kidneys (not absorbed)
What are some ways that real function is diagnosed? (seven)
X-ray,
Intravenous Pyelogram,
Lab Studies
Urinalysis, BUN Blood Urea Nitrogen, Glomerular filtration rate, doppler studies, computerized tomography)
In this diagnoses for renal function, it determines the size of the kidneys, they will not give pt a contrast dye
X-ray
In this diagnoses for renal function, it gives a picture of kidney but not function - iodine compound
IVP - Intravenous Pyelogram
In this diagnoses for renal function, it is the first test performed for dx of renal disfunction
Urinalysis
When a urinalysis is performed for renal function, what does it mean if the dipstick test is positive and is within the 3-4+ range?
Protein in urine
In this diagnoses for renal function, it is also known as Azotemia and Uremia
BUN - Blood Urea Nitrogen
In this diagnoses for renal function, it measures rise in creatine level
GFR - glomerular filtration rate
In this diagnoses for renal function, US measure the flow of blood through fistula
Doppler studies
In this diagnoses for renal function, the shape of the kidney is looked at.
Computerized Tomography
This is a toxic condition associated with urea buildup
Uremia
This is created by anastomosis; the surgical joining of an artery and vain.
A/V Fistula
This is a process that removes urea, poisons, uric acid, helps bring creatine to normal. The artificial cleansing of blood.
Dialysis
Name 4 types of dialysis
Hemodialysis, Peritoneal, Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis, and Continuous Cyclic Peritoneal Dialysis
What are the three stage of peritoneal dialysis?
THREE STAGES
1. Dialysate flows into peritoneal cavity
2. Dialysate stays in cavity. Electrolytes are exchanged, pass thorough blood by osmosis (lesser  higher concentration)
3. Drain dialysate out of cavity
In this type of dialysis, pt's blood is shunted from the body through an artificial dialyzer for diffusion and ultra filtration, then returned to the pt's circulation. It is the most common (87%)
Hemodialysis
In this type of dialysis, The site is the upper arm, forearm (proximal or distal), wrist (radial artery and cephalic vein or ulnar artery & basilic vein), leg/thigh (posterior tibial artery & saphenous vein)
Hemodialysis
What is the duration of tx for hemodialysis?
 Requires 3-8 hours daily for acute renal failure
* 2-3 times a week for chronic renal failure
* Physician prescribes type and duration of dialysis
* Peritoneal Dialysis uses the peritonial cavity in the abdomen
This type of dialysis uses the peritonial cavity in the abdomen to filter the blood via a vast network of capillaries
Peritoneal dialysis
In this type of dialysis, osmosis, diffusion, & infiltration allow the electrolytes to pass to the blood stream via the vascular peritoneum to the blood vessels of the abdominal cavity
Peritoneal dialysis
This type of dialysis is peritoneal dialysis in which the dialysis solution is exchanged 4 times per day, 7 days a week
Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD)
In this type of dialysis, the exchanges are spaced throughout the day (AM, noon, late afternoon, and before bedtime)
Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD)
An advantage to this type of dialysis is that the patient can be ambulatory.
Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD)
In this type of dialysis, the procedure is similar to the peritoneal dialysis except the abdominal cavity is infused only 4 or 5 times per day
Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD)
In this type of dialysis, it is peritoneal dialysis in which a cycler machine does the exchange every night for 10-12 hours
Continuous Cyclic Peritoneal Dialysis (CCPD)
A disadvantage of this type of dialysis is that the pt cannot be mobile
Continuous Cyclic Pertioneal Dialysis (CCPD)
This is caused by distal hypotension (decreased circulation). Pt has cold, painful fingers.
Radial Steal Syndrome
Cyanotic thumb with eczematous skin changes, oozing fluid around nail bed.
Sore Thumb Syndrome