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45 Cards in this Set

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A temporary myocardial ischemia, usually secondary to coronary atherosclerosis.
Angina pectoris
Prolonged myocardial ischemia, resulting in irreversible muscle damage or necrosis.
Myocardial infarction
Irritation of parietal pleura adjacent to the pericardium. (Sometimes the mechanism is unclear.)
Pericarditis
A splitting within the layers of the aortic wall, allowing passage of blood to dissect a channel.
Dissecting aortic aneurysm
Inflammation of trachea and large bronchi.
Tracheobronchitis
Inflammation of the parietal pleura, as in pleurisy, pneumonia, pulmonary infarction, or neoplasm.
Pleuritic pain
Inflammation of the esophageal mucosa by reflux of gastric acid.
Reflex esophagitis
Motor dysfunction of the esophageal muscle.
Diffuse esophageal spasm
Elevated pressure in pulmonary capillary bed with transudation of fluid into interstitial spaces and alveoli, decreased compliance of the lungs, increased work of breathing.
Left-sided heart failure
(left vent. failure or mitral stenosis)
Excessive mucus production in bronchi, followed by chronic obstruction of the airways.
Chronic bronchitis
Overdistention of air spaces distal to terminal bronchioles, with destruction of alveolar septa and chronic obstruction of the airways.
COPD
Bronchial hyperresponsiveness involving release of inflammatory mediators, increased airway secretions, and bronchoconstriction.
Asthma
Abnormal and widespread infiltration of cells, fluid, and collagen into interstitial spaces between alveoli. (Many causes.)
Diffuse interstitial lung diseases
(i.e. sarcoidosis, neoplasms, asbestosis, and isiopathic pulmonary fibrosis)
Leakage of air into pleural space through blebs on visceral pleura, with resulting partial or complete collapse of the lung.
Spontaneous pneumothorax
Sudden occlusion of all or part of pulmonary arterial tree by a blood clot that usually originates in deep veins of legs or pelvis.
Acute pulmonary embolism
Overbreathing, with resultant respiratory alkalosis and fall in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood.
Anxiety with hyperventilation
COUGH - Dry cough (without sputum), may become productive of variable, often associated with nasopharyngitis.
Laryngitis
COUGH CHARACTERISTICS
COUGH - Dry cough, may become sputum productive, often with burning retrosternal discomfort.
Tracheobronchitis
COUGH CHARACTERISTICS
COUGH - Dry hacking cough, often becoming mucoid sputum productive, an acute febrile illness often with malaise, ha, and possibly dyspnea.
Mycoplama and viral pneumonias
COUGH CHARACTERISTICS
COUGH - Sputum mucoid or purulent (may be blood-streaked, diffusely pinkish, or rusty).
Bacterial pneumonia (pneumococcal)
COUGH CHARACTERISTICS
COUGH - Similar to pneumococcal, or sticky, red, and jelly like; typically in alcoholic men.
Bacterial pneumonia (Klebsiella)
COUGH CHARACTERISTICS
COUGH - Chronic cough, sputum mucoid or mucopurulent, constant clearing of the throat, associated with chronic rhinitis.
Postnasal drip
COUGH CHARACTERISTICS
COUGH - Chronic cough, sputum mucoid to purulent, may be blood-streaked or even bloody, often assoc. with long-time smoking.
Chronic bronchitis
COUGH CHARACTERISTICS
COUGH - Chronic cough; sputum purulent, often copious and foul-smelling; may be blood-streaked or bloody; recurrent bronchopulmonary infections common, sinusitis may exist.
Bronchiectasis<BR>COUGH CHARACTERISTICS
COUGH - Dry cough or sputum that is mucoid or purulent; may be blood-streaked or bloody. Early - no symptoms / Later - anorexia, fatigue, fever, night sweats, weight loss.
Pulmonary TB
COUGH CHARACTERISTICS
COUGH - Sputum purulent and foul-smelling; may be bloody; A febrile illness, sometimes assoc. with poor dental hygiene and a prior episode of impaired conciousness.
Lung abcess
COUGH CHARACTERISTICS
COUGH - Cough with thick mucoid sputum; episodic wheezing and dyspnea, but cough may occur alone, often accompanied by allergies.
Asthma
COUGH CHARACTERISTICS
COUGH - Chronic cough, especially at night or early morning; wheezing especially at night, often hx of heartburn and regurgitation.
Gastroesophageal reflux
COUGH CHARACTERISTICS
COUGH - Dry cough to productive; sputum may be blood-dtreaked or bloody; usually assoc. with long-term smoking.
Lung cancer
COUGH CHARACTERISTICS
COUGH - Often dry, especially on exertion or at night; may progress to the pink frothy sputum of pulm edema or to a frank hemoptysis; assoc with dyspnea, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea.
Left ventricular failure or Mitral stenosis<BR>COUGH CHARACTERISTICS
COUGH - Dry to productive, may be dark, bright red, or mixed with blood; assoc. with dyspnea, anxiety, chest pain, fever, factors that predispose to deep vein thrombosis.
Pulmonary emboli
COUGH CHARACTERISTICS
A process in which the alveoli fill with fluid, red cells, and white cells (often seen in pneumonia).
Consolidation
A sound which occurs when air flows rapidly through bronchi that are narrowed nearly to closure.
Wheezing
A wheeze that is entirely or predominantly inspiratory, often louder over the neck, indicates a partial obstruction of trachea or larynx; requires immed attention.
Stridor
A sound caused by inflamed and roughened pleural surfaces grating against each other.
Pleural rub
aka Hamman's sign
aka Mediastinal crunch
A series of precordial crackles synchronous with the heart beat, not with respiration. Best heard in the left lateral position, it is due to pneumomediastinum.
Mediastinal crunch
aka Hamman's sign
Crackles heard during inspiration, usually fine, fairly profuse, appear first in base of lungs and spread up as cond worsens, and shift to dependent regions with changes in posture; causes include interstitial lung disease (i.e. fibrosis) and early congestive heart failure.
Late inspiratory crackles
Coarse crackes heard on inspiration, relatively few in numbers, sometimes assoc with expiratory crackles; causes include chronic bronchitis and asthma.
Early inspiratory crackles
Deformity in which the sternum is displaced anteriorly, costal cartilages adjacent to the sternum are depressed.
Pigeon chest
aka Pectus carinatum
aka Funnel chest
aka Pectus excavatum
A deformity in which multiple rib fractures may result in paradoxical movements of the thorax; on inspiration the injured area caves inward, expiration moves out.
Traumatic flail chest
When a plug in a mainstem bronchus (mucus or foreign body) obstructs air flow, affected lung tissue collapses into a airless state.
Atelectasis
A condition when air leaks into the pleural space, usually unilaterally, the lung recoils from the chest wall. Pleural air blocks transmission of sound.
Pneumothorax
A condition when fluid accumulates in the pleural space, separates air-filled lung from the chest wall, blocking the transmission of sound.
Pleural effusion