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84 Cards in this Set

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Newton's 1st law - Law of Inertia
Objects continue at rest, or in uniform motion in straight line, unless acted on by outside force
Newton's 2nd law of Motion (=)
Acceleration = net force / mass

F = MA
None
Newton's 3rd law of motion
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
Hooke's Law (=)
F = change in length x spring constant
None
Hooke's Law
Distance of stretch or squeeze (extension or compression) of an elastic material is directly proportional to the applied force.
Inverse Square law =
Intensity ~ 1 / distance²
None
Universal law of gravitation (=)
F = G (m1m2/d²)
None
Kepler's laws of Planetary motion: 1
The path of each planet around the Sun is an ellipse w/ the Sun at one focus
Kepler's laws of Planetary motion: 3
The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cude of the average distance of the planet from the sun ( T² ~ R³ for all planets )
Kepler's laws of Planetary motion: 2
The line from the Sun to any planet sweeps out equal areas of space in equal time intervals.

Orbital redius & speed are inversely proportional

As orbital radius increases (or decreases) the speed decreases (or increases) by the same factor
None
Force
push or a pull
Net Force
Vector sum of forces on an object
Equilibrium
state of no change
Inertia
resistance to change
Equilibrium rule
sum of forces is zero
Mechanical Equilibrium (=)
Net force = zero.
No change in motion.
None
Scalar quantity
Magnitude but not direction

Ex: mass, volume, energy & speed
None
Vector quantity
Magnitude & direction

Ex: force, velocity, acceleration, momentum
None
Speed =
distance / time
Instantaneous speed
Speed at an instant
Average speed =
distance covered / time taken
None
Total distance covered =
average speed x time
Velocity
speed w/ direction
Velocity acquired =
acceleration x time
Velocity acquired in free fall from rest =
v=gt
None
Distance acquired in free fall from rest =
d = ½gt²
None
Constant velocity
Constant speed & constant direction
Changing velocity
Either speed or direction or both change
Acceleration =
change in velocity / time
Free fall
motion under influence of gravity only
Force Causes
Acceleration
Mass
Quantity of matter in an object.
Weight
Force due to gravity on an object.
Volume
Quantity of space an object occupies
Terminal velocity <>=
air resistance = weight
None
acceleration <>
weight > air resistance
None
deceleration <>=
weight < air resistance
None
Primary forces at work on a ski diver
gravity & air resistance
Momentum =
mass x velocity
Impulse
change in momentum of the object that the impulse acts upon
None
Power =
work / time
Work =
force x distance
Energy
ability (capacity) to do work
None
Mechanical Energy
Energy due to position or movement of something
Potential Energy
Energy of position
None
Kinetic Energy
Energy of motion
Kinetic Energy =
KE = ½mv²
Work Energy Theorem =
work = change in KE
None
Efficiency
Useful energy output divided by the total energy input.
Simple machines
Device used to manipulate the amount &/or direction of force when work is done
Tangential Speed
Linear speed tangent to a curved path, such as a circular motion
Rotational Speed
rotation per minute (rpm)
Torque =
Torque = lever arm leverage x force
to produce rotation
None
Center of Mass (CM)
Average position of mass
None
Center of Gravity (CG)
average location weight

balance point
None
Centripetal force
center seaking
Centrifugal force
center fleeing
Weight
measure of the force of gravity on a body
Weightlessness
Being w/o a support force, as in free fall
Spring tide
at full or new Moon
Neap tide
high tide or low tide btwn the new and full Moon phases
High tides occur when
Moon is overhead
Each day ___ high tides & __ low tides occur
2 high tides & 2 low tides
Black hole
Concentration of mass resulting from gravitational collapse, near which gravity is so intense that not even light can escape
Projectile
Any object that is kicked, fired or thrown
Trajectory
Path that a projectile follows (usu curved, unless launched straight up or down)
Range
Horizontal distance a projectile travels
Projectile distance =
d = ½gt²
Satellite orbit maximum speed
11 km/s
Satellite orbit minimum speed
8 km/s
Trajectory angle of fire, maximum range
45°
None
Trajectory angle of fire, same range
two angles w/ sum of 90°
None
Ellipse
objects in orbit travel in this special oval shape
Mass of orbitting object does not effect
its motion
Projectile Motion
No air resistance
No vertical acceleration
Horizontal uniform motion

Under the influence of gravity only
None
Air resistance & projectile
causes the trajectory to fall short of the idealized parabolic path
Escape speed
Speed need for a projectile or satellite to escape the gravitational influence of Earth

(more than 11 km/s for Earth)
None
Parabola
Curved path followed by a projectile
None
Satellite
A projectile or small celestial body that orbits a larger celestial body
Conservation laws involve
no external forces
None
Conservation of Energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed
it may only change forms
None
Conservation of Momentum
momentum remains unchanged
constant magnitude & direction
None
Conservation of Energy for machines (=)
work input = work output
None
Conservation of Angular Momentum (=)
Angular momentum before an event involving only internal torque or no torque = to the angular momentum after the event.
None