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### 84 Cards in this Set

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 Newton's 1st law - Law of Inertia Objects continue at rest, or in uniform motion in straight line, unless acted on by outside force Newton's 2nd law of Motion (=) Acceleration = net force / mass F = MA None Newton's 3rd law of motion For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction Hooke's Law (=) F = change in length x spring constant None Hooke's Law Distance of stretch or squeeze (extension or compression) of an elastic material is directly proportional to the applied force. Inverse Square law = Intensity ~ 1 / distance² None Universal law of gravitation (=) F = G (m1m2/d²) None Kepler's laws of Planetary motion: 1 The path of each planet around the Sun is an ellipse w/ the Sun at one focus Kepler's laws of Planetary motion: 3 The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cude of the average distance of the planet from the sun ( T² ~ R³ for all planets ) Kepler's laws of Planetary motion: 2 The line from the Sun to any planet sweeps out equal areas of space in equal time intervals. Orbital redius & speed are inversely proportional As orbital radius increases (or decreases) the speed decreases (or increases) by the same factor None Force push or a pull Net Force Vector sum of forces on an object Equilibrium state of no change Inertia resistance to change Equilibrium rule sum of forces is zero Mechanical Equilibrium (=) Net force = zero. No change in motion. None Scalar quantity Magnitude but not direction Ex: mass, volume, energy & speed None Vector quantity Magnitude & direction Ex: force, velocity, acceleration, momentum None Speed = distance / time Instantaneous speed Speed at an instant Average speed = distance covered / time taken None Total distance covered = average speed x time Velocity speed w/ direction Velocity acquired = acceleration x time Velocity acquired in free fall from rest = v=gt None Distance acquired in free fall from rest = d = ½gt² None Constant velocity Constant speed & constant direction Changing velocity Either speed or direction or both change Acceleration = change in velocity / time Free fall motion under influence of gravity only Force Causes Acceleration Mass Quantity of matter in an object. Weight Force due to gravity on an object. Volume Quantity of space an object occupies Terminal velocity <>= air resistance = weight None acceleration <> weight > air resistance None deceleration <>= weight < air resistance None Primary forces at work on a ski diver gravity & air resistance Momentum = mass x velocity Impulse change in momentum of the object that the impulse acts upon None Power = work / time Work = force x distance Energy ability (capacity) to do work None Mechanical Energy Energy due to position or movement of something Potential Energy Energy of position None Kinetic Energy Energy of motion Kinetic Energy = KE = ½mv² Work Energy Theorem = work = change in KE None Efficiency Useful energy output divided by the total energy input. Simple machines Device used to manipulate the amount &/or direction of force when work is done Tangential Speed Linear speed tangent to a curved path, such as a circular motion Rotational Speed rotation per minute (rpm) Torque = Torque = lever arm leverage x force to produce rotation None Center of Mass (CM) Average position of mass None Center of Gravity (CG) average location weight balance point None Centripetal force center seaking Centrifugal force center fleeing Weight measure of the force of gravity on a body Weightlessness Being w/o a support force, as in free fall Spring tide at full or new Moon Neap tide high tide or low tide btwn the new and full Moon phases High tides occur when Moon is overhead Each day ___ high tides & __ low tides occur 2 high tides & 2 low tides Black hole Concentration of mass resulting from gravitational collapse, near which gravity is so intense that not even light can escape Projectile Any object that is kicked, fired or thrown Trajectory Path that a projectile follows (usu curved, unless launched straight up or down) Range Horizontal distance a projectile travels Projectile distance = d = ½gt² Satellite orbit maximum speed 11 km/s Satellite orbit minimum speed 8 km/s Trajectory angle of fire, maximum range 45° None Trajectory angle of fire, same range two angles w/ sum of 90° None Ellipse objects in orbit travel in this special oval shape Mass of orbitting object does not effect its motion Projectile Motion No air resistance No vertical acceleration Horizontal uniform motion Under the influence of gravity only None Air resistance & projectile causes the trajectory to fall short of the idealized parabolic path Escape speed Speed need for a projectile or satellite to escape the gravitational influence of Earth (more than 11 km/s for Earth) None Parabola Curved path followed by a projectile None Satellite A projectile or small celestial body that orbits a larger celestial body Conservation laws involve no external forces None Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed it may only change forms None Conservation of Momentum momentum remains unchanged constant magnitude & direction None Conservation of Energy for machines (=) work input = work output None Conservation of Angular Momentum (=) Angular momentum before an event involving only internal torque or no torque = to the angular momentum after the event. 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