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84 Cards in this Set
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Newton's 1st law  Law of Inertia

Objects continue at rest, or in uniform motion in straight line, unless acted on by outside force



Newton's 2nd law of Motion (=)

Acceleration = net force / mass
F = MA 
None


Newton's 3rd law of motion

For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction



Hooke's Law (=)

F = change in length x spring constant

None


Hooke's Law

Distance of stretch or squeeze (extension or compression) of an elastic material is directly proportional to the applied force.



Inverse Square law =

Intensity ~ 1 / distance²

None


Universal law of gravitation (=)

F = G (m1m2/d²)

None


Kepler's laws of Planetary motion: 1

The path of each planet around the Sun is an ellipse w/ the Sun at one focus



Kepler's laws of Planetary motion: 3

The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cude of the average distance of the planet from the sun ( T² ~ R³ for all planets )



Kepler's laws of Planetary motion: 2

The line from the Sun to any planet sweeps out equal areas of space in equal time intervals.
Orbital redius & speed are inversely proportional As orbital radius increases (or decreases) the speed decreases (or increases) by the same factor 
None


Force

push or a pull



Net Force

Vector sum of forces on an object



Equilibrium

state of no change



Inertia

resistance to change



Equilibrium rule

sum of forces is zero



Mechanical Equilibrium (=)

Net force = zero.
No change in motion. 
None


Scalar quantity

Magnitude but not direction
Ex: mass, volume, energy & speed 
None


Vector quantity

Magnitude & direction
Ex: force, velocity, acceleration, momentum 
None


Speed =

distance / time



Instantaneous speed

Speed at an instant



Average speed =

distance covered / time taken

None


Total distance covered =

average speed x time



Velocity

speed w/ direction



Velocity acquired =

acceleration x time



Velocity acquired in free fall from rest =

v=gt

None


Distance acquired in free fall from rest =

d = ½gt²

None


Constant velocity

Constant speed & constant direction



Changing velocity

Either speed or direction or both change



Acceleration =

change in velocity / time



Free fall

motion under influence of gravity only



Force Causes

Acceleration



Mass

Quantity of matter in an object.



Weight

Force due to gravity on an object.



Volume

Quantity of space an object occupies



Terminal velocity <>=

air resistance = weight

None


acceleration <>

weight > air resistance

None


deceleration <>=

weight < air resistance

None


Primary forces at work on a ski diver

gravity & air resistance



Momentum =

mass x velocity



Impulse

change in momentum of the object that the impulse acts upon

None


Power =

work / time



Work =

force x distance



Energy

ability (capacity) to do work

None


Mechanical Energy

Energy due to position or movement of something



Potential Energy

Energy of position

None


Kinetic Energy

Energy of motion



Kinetic Energy =

KE = ½mv²



Work Energy Theorem =

work = change in KE

None


Efficiency

Useful energy output divided by the total energy input.



Simple machines

Device used to manipulate the amount &/or direction of force when work is done



Tangential Speed

Linear speed tangent to a curved path, such as a circular motion



Rotational Speed

rotation per minute (rpm)



Torque =

Torque = lever arm leverage x force
to produce rotation 
None


Center of Mass (CM)

Average position of mass

None


Center of Gravity (CG)

average location weight
balance point 
None


Centripetal force

center seaking



Centrifugal force

center fleeing



Weight

measure of the force of gravity on a body



Weightlessness

Being w/o a support force, as in free fall



Spring tide

at full or new Moon



Neap tide

high tide or low tide btwn the new and full Moon phases



High tides occur when

Moon is overhead



Each day ___ high tides & __ low tides occur

2 high tides & 2 low tides



Black hole

Concentration of mass resulting from gravitational collapse, near which gravity is so intense that not even light can escape



Projectile

Any object that is kicked, fired or thrown



Trajectory

Path that a projectile follows (usu curved, unless launched straight up or down)



Range

Horizontal distance a projectile travels



Projectile distance =

d = ½gt²



Satellite orbit maximum speed

11 km/s



Satellite orbit minimum speed

8 km/s



Trajectory angle of fire, maximum range

45°

None


Trajectory angle of fire, same range

two angles w/ sum of 90°

None


Ellipse

objects in orbit travel in this special oval shape



Mass of orbitting object does not effect

its motion



Projectile Motion

No air resistance
No vertical acceleration Horizontal uniform motion Under the influence of gravity only 
None


Air resistance & projectile

causes the trajectory to fall short of the idealized parabolic path



Escape speed

Speed need for a projectile or satellite to escape the gravitational influence of Earth
(more than 11 km/s for Earth) 
None


Parabola

Curved path followed by a projectile

None


Satellite

A projectile or small celestial body that orbits a larger celestial body



Conservation laws involve

no external forces

None


Conservation of Energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed
it may only change forms 
None


Conservation of Momentum

momentum remains unchanged
constant magnitude & direction 
None


Conservation of Energy for machines (=)

work input = work output

None


Conservation of Angular Momentum (=)

Angular momentum before an event involving only internal torque or no torque = to the angular momentum after the event.

None
