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109 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define pelagic.
-lives in the open seas
Are molluscs proto or deuterostomes?
What is the similarity between molluscs and annelids that suggests that they may be related?
-they both have trochophore larva
What is an 'archetype'?
-a hypothetical creature that has all of the ancestral features of molluscs created by biologists
What is the symmetry of molluscs?

**Except for gastropods which are secondarily assymmetrical**
What are the 3 regions to the mollusc body?
1) head

2) foot

3) visceral mass
What structures are usually found on the head of molluscs?
-mouth (inside mouth is radula)
-salivary glands
How is the mollusc foot used for gliding?
-secretes mucus from the pedal gland and it glides on the mucus layer

*gliding is considered primitive, there are other ways that the foot is used in movement*
What is the VISCERAL MASS?
-found above the foot, contains the visceral organs
-visceral organs are organs needed for digestion
How do molluscs feed and digest?
-have intra and extracellular digestion
-style sac cilia stirs up food in stomach (mucus bound mass = PROTOSTYLE)
-food particles are freed and all to sortin area where they are sorted based on size
-small particles are digested intracellularily
-big particles are moved to the intestine
-mucous bound mass of food
Are molluscs coelomate or acoelomate?
-they are coleomates, but coleom is generally reduced to regions around the heart, gonadas, and kidneys
-the major body cavity is the HEMOCOEL
What kind of circulatory systems do molluscs have?
-most have an open circulatory system
-some molluscs have the resp pigment HEMOCYANIN which contains copper
*if oxygenated, hemocyanin turns blue*

-Cephalopod molluscs have more of a closed circ sys, and have more coelom
What is the MANTLE?
-the outer surface of the visceral mass, a thick tissue
-the mantle secretes the shell
-mantle surrounds a posterior cavitey called the MANTLE CAVITY
-cavity contains the gills/CTENIDIA
-water is moved over the gills by cilia or contractions of the mantle cavity
What is the shell of molluscs composed of?
-calcium carbonates
Which groups of molluscs lack a shell?
What is the PNEUMOSTOME?
-terrestrial and some freshwater snails don't have gills in the mantle cavity, the mantle cavity then acts as a lung

-the mantle cavity communicates with the outside air through the PNEUMOSTOME
What does the nervous system of molluscs consist of?
-a nerve ring around the esophagus
-2 pairs of nerve cords extend from the nerve ring, one pair to the foot, the other pairf to the viscera

-4 pairs of ganglia
1)Cerebral Ganglia-in head
2)Pleural Ganglia-posterior to the head
3)Visceral Ganglia-in the visceral mass
4)Pedal Ganglia-in the foot
What sensory organs are found on molluscs?
-on the head
=> tentacles, eyes/ocelli

-organs of balance
=> statocysts, osphradium associated with the base of the gills
-having male reproductive organs in one individual and female in another
-most are dioecious, but some are hermaphroditic
Do molluscs lay eggs or do they release live young?
-they do both, but mostly lay eggs
In which species do TROCHOPHORE larvae occur?
-primitive gastropods
In which species do VELIGER larvae occur?
-some snails
In which species do GLOCHIDIA larvae occur?
-freshwater clams
What class do CHITONS belong to?
-belongs to class Amphineura or Polyplacophora
Describe the external anatomy of a CHITON.
-dorsal shell is divided into 8 plates
-poorly developed head is located ventrally near the anterior end of the foot
-mouth contains a radula used to rasp algae off rocks
-large foot upon which they glide
-tubular gills are arranged along the lateral margins of the foot in a pair of mantle grooves
What are some characteristics to the Class Aplacophora?
-worm like molluscs that lack a shell, head, mantle, discrete foot and kidneys
What are some characteristics to the Class MONOPLACOPHORA?
-only 7 species presently
-single shell is platelike or coneshaped
-6 pairs of nephridia, 5 pairs of retractor muscles, 5 pairs of gills
-creep around on flat foot
What are some characteristics to the Class GASTROPODA?
-largest class of molluscs
-well developed head with tentacles and eyes
-well developed foot upon which they move
-if shell is present, it is COILED
-they undergo TORSION
What is TORSION?
-the unequal growth in the larva which produces a 180 displacement of the mantle cavity, excretory pores, anus, and gills, putting thses structures in an anterior rather than a posterior position

-advantageous for various reasons (ie: puts gills in front so they don't have to breath in shit and sand) *See pg5*
What is the special function of the mantle cavity in terrestrial snails?
-acts as a lung
-lung is ventilated through the PNEUMOSTOME, a small opening on the right side of the anterior end of the mantle edge
How does coiling result?
-one side of the body grows more rapidly than the other side
-Helically coiled shells is thought to be the most advanced shell design in gastropods
What's the importance of the shell?
-a portable retreat
-coiled to allow more room for the body to retreat into
What's the difference between PLANOSPIRAL and HELICALLY COILED shells?
-planospiral are symmetrical and stays in one plane. Positioned the visceral mass high above the head and foot... no good

-helically coiled are asymmetrical and bulge into 3D space, thought to be more advanced. But because it is asymmetrical, organism loses right member of several of the previously paired internal organs (ie: ovary, nut, kidney, etc.)
Some gastropods lack a shell, how do they defend themselves?
-produce distasteful taste
-secrete poison
-store nematocysts from their cnidarian prey in special fleshy outgrowths on their back.
What are some characteristics of the anatomy of the Class Bivalva.
-laterally compressed animals
-shell with 2 valves, hinged dorsally, and completed encloses the body
-foot is hatchet shaped
-head is greatly reduced in size
-lack a radula
-mantle cavity is spacious
-large gills, which also have a food collecting function
What are some characteristics of a bivalves shell?
-has large bumps called UMBONES
-LATERAL HINGE TEETH found on the dorsal margin of the inner surface of the valve
-CARDINAL HINGE TEETH found near the umbo
-ADDUCTOR MUSCLE SCARS on each valve; one on the anterior end, the other on the posterior end
-ANTERIOR PEDAL PROTRACTOR found posterior to the anterior adductor muscle scar
-ANTERIOR & POSTERIOR PEDAL RETRACTOR MUSCLE SCARS are found dorsal to both adductor muscle scars
What's the function of ADDUCTOR MUSCLE SCARS?
-site where adductor muscles insert to close the valves
-antagonized by the hinge ligament which opens the shell when the adductor muscles relax
-pulls the foot forward in the shell so that the foot can be extended anteriorly out of the shell when the clam is about to move
-retractor muscles pull foot deeper into the shell
What 3 layers compose the bivalve shell?
-made of a protein called CONCHIOLIN which is secreted by the inner edge of the outer fold of the mantle

-middle calcareous layer
-has vertical crystals of calcium carbonate, each surrounded in a thin protein matrix
-matrix is secreted by the outer surface of the outer fold of the mantle

-inner shiny layer... mother of pearl layer
-screted by the entire outer outer surface of the mantle which contains nacre-secreting cells

**to test if calcium carbonate is in the shells, add HCl and check for bubbles**
How are pearls made?
-made in the space between the mantle and each shell valve
-shell secrete nacre over foreign particles like sand
What are the 3 folds found in the MANTLE TISSUE and what do they do?
-concerned with shell secretion
=>inner surface of the outer fold lays down the periostracum
=>outer surface of the outer fold lays secretes the prismatic layer

-for sensing
-narrow dark ridge along the edge of the mantle
-inhalent siphon found along the posterior margin of the mantle where there are several short tentacles
-exhalent siphon is dosal to the inhalent siphon
-mantle is thickened in the region b/w the in/exhalent siphon

-important in keeping the margins of the mantle cavity sealed during feeding and cleaning
-muscles in this layer attach to the shell at the pallial line
What are the importances of CTENIDIA/GILLS in clams?
-brood chambers for young clams
What is the structure of CTENIDIA/GILLS?
-each fill consists of 2 DEMIBRANCHS
-each demibranch is covered on each side by a sheet of tissue called a LAMELLA
-each lamella is permeated by tiny holes called OSTIA, these are heavily ciliated
-between lamella are WATERTUBES and between watertubes are GILL BARS
-water moves through the water tubes and into the SUPRABRANCHIAL CHAMBER where it is then expelled via the exhalent siphon
How are gills used in feeding in clams?
-food particlesget trapped in mucous on the surfaces of the lamellae
-cilia on the surface of each fill carry the food to 1 of 3 FOOD GROOVES
-food grooves carry food towards the mouth
-food is passed onto a pair of LABIAL PALPS where food is sorted
-coarser food particles rejected to the mantle floor and later expelled out of the inhalent siphon by quickly closing, thus reversing flow
-the remaining fine particles are moved to the mouth where it is ingested
-mouth is found above above the base of the anterior end of the foot
Why are clam gills so large?
-to increase their efficiency as filters for removing plankton, microorganisms and organic debris from water drawn into the mantle cavity
How do clams reproduce?
-eggs in ovaries pass to suprabranchial chambers
-moved to water tubes of the lateral demibranchs, stick there because of mucus
-fertilized by sperm in there
-developes in MARSUPIA/BROOD CHAMBERS (enlarged lateral demibranch)
-eggs develope into GLOCHIDIA LARVAE (2 hooked valves)
-eventually released to outsie and uses hooks to attach to fish
-live parasitically for 10-30 days
-once matre, they drop and become little clams
What does the digestive system of a clam consist of? What are the functions of each component?

-on each side of the stomach are greenish DIGESTIVE GLANDS
-inside the stomach is a gelatinous rod called the CRYSTALLINE STYLE
-cilia in the style sac rotate the crystalline style
-rotation of the style aids in pulling a food laden mucous strand through the mouth into the stomach
-food particles drop out of the mucous strand onto a sorting area
-coarse particles are refected and are carried by cilia to the intestine
-fine particles are carried by cilia to the ducts of the digestive glands
-crystalline style dissolves, releasing enzymes into the stomach
-stomach wall and digestive glands also release enzymes

-leads from the stomach and coils in the visceral mass
-functions in producing fecal pellets, some digestion and absorption
-intestine is surrounded by yellowish and large PAIRED GONADS (makes lots of sperm and lots of eggs!)

-extends forward and dorsally into the anterior region of the visceral mass just above the stomach
-leads to the RECTUM
Describe the heart of the clam.
-most of the mid dorsal region of the visceral mass is occupied by the the heart
-surrounded by a large fluidfilled chamber contained within the walls of a PERICARDIAL SAC
-rectum extends through the pericardial sac
-ATRIA found inside the pericardial sac (2 delicate triangles...)
-atria extends from the ventral surface of the pericardial sac to the muscular VETRICLE
-blood enters the ventricle from the atria through pores called OSTIA
Describe the blood flow through a clam.
-blood is pumped anteriorly into the ANTERIOR AORTA and posteriorly into the POSTERIOR AORTA by the VENTRICLE
-anterior aorta supplies blood to the foot, viscera and mantle
-posterior aorta supples blood to the rectum and mantle
-clams have an open circulatory system, blood sloshes through body cavities called SINUSES after leaving the major branches of the anterior and posterior aortas

-blood returning from the mantle is oxygenated, this blood returns directly to the atria
-deoxygenated blood from the rest of the body goes to the kidneys, then to the gills where it is oxygenated then to the mantle and back to atrium
What is the structure of a kidney and how does it function?
-they are dark and are found under the pericardial sac
-2 sources move blood to the kidneys
i) the heart wall which delivers a filtrate from the blood into the pericardial sac
ii) glands in the pericardium which also secrete wastes into the pericardial sac

-each kidney has a NEPHROSTOME, drains fluid from the pericardial cavity into a long coiled tubule.
-as urine is passed down the tubule, exchange occurs between the urine and the blood, doing a balancing act
-urine is emptied to the SUPRABRANCHIAL CHAMBER via numerous NEPHRIDIOPORES
What does the nervous system of a clam consist of?
-fusion between cerebral and pleural ganlia
-2 of them, 1 on each side of the esophagous

-2 of them, comes from the cerebropleural ganglia

-located on the dorsal part of the foot
-2 of them, comes from the cerebropleural ganglia

4)STATOCYSTS-near pedal ganglion

5)TENTACLES-mantle margin

6)OSPHRADIUM-under the posterior adductur muscle in the exhalant siphon
What are some characteristics to the Class Scaphopoda? Approx. 9 of them
-commonly referred to as tooth or tusk shells
-both ends of tusk shaped shells are open
-burrow in mud but leave posterior tip of shell exposed to the surface
-head is reduced to a short proboscis
-foot is cone shaped and used for burrowing
-feeds on microscopic organisms captured by adhesive structures on tetacles arising on each side of the head
-radula is present in the mouth
-mantle cavity extends the entire length of the ventral surface
-posterior aperture of the shell serves as both an inhalant and exhalant opening for water currents
What species are included within the Class Cephalopoda?
**have an internal shell**

**lack a shell**

**have an external shell**
How is the body of a shrimp divided up?
-divided into a smaller fused head-foot region and a larger region consisting of the humplike visceral mass surrounded by a muscular mantle
Describe the arms & tentacles of a squid.
-8 arms project from the head, derived from the anterior end of the foot
-arms each have 2 rows of stalked suckers along their inner side
-2 longer tentacles have suckers only at the tip
-tentacles usually stored in sheathes to seize prey
-arms hold the prey against the mouth which is located in the center
Describe the head of a squid.
-large pair of eyes are present on sides of the head
-behind the eyes are a pair of OLFACTORY CRESTS
-cavity behind the crest acts as an OLFACTORY ORGAN(for smell)
Describe the inhalent and exhalent openings on a squid.
-EXHALENT OPENING is a tubular funnel found ventral to the head and is separated from it by a groove
-inside the tube is a valve which stops water from flowing back through the siphon when water is inhaled into the mantle
-INHALENT OPENINGS are a pair of crescent shaped openings on each side of the head
-draws water into the mantle cavity
-LATERAL FINS are located posterior of the visceral hump
How do squids move?
*Mostly through jet propulsion*
-CIRCULAR MUSCLES relax, mantle cavity expands, drawing water in
-mantle muscles close up, preventing water escape through the mantle
-mantle is then reduced in size causing water to spun out the ventral funnel
-funnel can be swivelled to steer
-VISCERAL HUMP is streamlined to reduce drag

**can also use slow rippling movements of the lateral fins to move slowly**
What are CHROMATOPHORES used for in squids?
-responsible for color shcanges in squids
-consist of pigment cells surrounded by muscle strands which cause the cells to expand or contract during the process of color change
What is the MEDIAN SEPTUM?
-separates the posterior part of the mantle cavity into left and right halves
-MEDIAN MANTLE ARTERY is located along the anterior margin of the median septum
-the entire visceral mass is joined medially to the dorsal surface of the mantle
Where and what are the locking mechanisms in squids?
-cartilagenous RIDGES are located laterally on the inner surace at the anterior end of the mantle.
-ridges interlock with cartilagnous GROOVES located on the main part of the body

**locking devices keep the 2 dorsally located inhalant currents separated from the single ventral exhalant current which passes out through the funnel**
Where are the CTENIDIA located on the squid?
-2 of them located lateral to the main body mass
-ctenidia are placed so that the inhalant streams of water pass directly over them
Where are the RECTUM, CEPHALIC VEIN & INK SAC located on the squid?
-rectum extends forward on the ventral surface of the visceral mass to open as the anus near the base of the funnel

-cephalic vein and ink sac lies beneath the rectum
Describe the kidneys of a squid.
-located on the ventral surface of the visceral mass, just behing the base of the rectum
-NEPHRIDIOPORES are located on small papillae on the lateral surfaces at the anterior ends of the kidneys

**female kidneys are covered by NIDAMENTAL GLANDS which have ACCESSORY NIDAMENTAL GLANDS near the anterior endd**
Where is the GONODUCT located on squids?
-is located on the left side of the body

-male gonoduct is a simple tube
-female gonoduct is a tube with large folded lips on the anterior end
What are the main types of muscles that squids have?
-2 of them, attaches to the posterior ends of the siphon laterally and extends posteriorly to the dorsal wall of the mantle

-located along the dorsal surface of the visceral mass

**STELLATE GANGLIA are in the region between the outer surface of the dorsal head retractor muscle and the dorsal wall of the mantle**
Describe the heart in a squid and it's role in blood flow.
-BRANCHIAL HEART assist in pumping blood through the gills
-deoxygenated blood enterseach gill through an AFFERENT BRANCHIAL BEIN located in the middle of the gill tissue
-EFFERENT BRANCHIAL VEIN(found along the inner margin of the ctenidium), carries oxygenated blood from the ctenidium to the median heart
-below each branchial heart are the ANTERIOR & MEDIAN MANTLE VEINS which carry blood from the mantle to the branchial heart
-large POSTERIOR MANTLE VEINS bring blood to teh brachial hearts from the posterior end of the mantle
Describe the Circulatory System within a squid.
-basically a closed system with capillaries in most regions
-the main venous vessels returning blood to the branchial hearts are the CEPHALIC VEINS and the MANTLE VEINS
-cephalic vein branches, each branch entering one of the kidneys
-venous blood drained from each kidney enters ONE of the brachial hearts
-the blood is oxygenated in the gills and returns via the efferent branchial hearts to the MEDIAN HEART
-median heart pumps blood to all regions of the body through the ANTERIOR and POSTERIOR AORTAS
How does a squid pee?
-cephalic veins and branchial hearts play a role in excretion
-lateral branches of the cephalic vein possess several evaginations called RENAL APPENDAGES which project into the RENAL SAC of the kidney
-during passage of blood through the kidney, wasts are secreted from the renal appendaes into the renal sac, forming URINE
-the inner wall of the branchial heart and the wall of the PERICARDIAL SAC are close together
-a filtrate passes from the branchial heart into the fluid within the pericardial sac
-the fluid in the pericardium passees along a RENOPERICARDIAL CANAL to the renal sac, substances may be reabsorbed from the filtrate back into the blood
-urine in the renal sac is the excreted through the nephridiopore at the anterior end of each kidney
Describe the stomach of the squid.
-muscular and located on the right side of the body just behind and dorsal to the right branchial heart
-the larger, thin walled CAECUM extends posteriorly from the stomach
-the caecum is connected at its anterior end to the stomach
-the caecum is very large and has a jelly like consistency in males but in gravid femalesit is usually collapsed and reduced in size
Describe the female reproductive system in squids.
-large OVARY is in the posterior region of the visceral mass
-eggs are released from the ventral region of the ovary into a region of the colom called the GONOCOEL
-eggs are drawn forward into the OVIDUCT, located on the left side of the body
-posterior opening of the oviduct is surrounded by a large firm gland celled the OVIDUCAL GLAND, adds a capsule to each egg
-oviduct extends forward beneath the left branchial heart into the anterior part of the mantle cavity
-prior to fertilization, the NIDAMENTAL and the ACCESSORY NIDAMENTAL GLANDS secrete a gelatinous material around the eggs in the mantle cavity, hardens on contact with sea water
Describe the male reproductive system in squids.
-single TESTIS is located in the gonocoel beneath the caesum at the posterior end of the visceral mass
-sperm are released into the gonocoel from a faint MEDIAN LONGITUDINAL GROOVE in the testis
-sprm are drawn anteriorly into the posterior region of the vas deferens by cilia on the SPERM BULB
-sperm are transported anteriorly in the vas derens to the SPERMATOPHORIC GLAND
-sperm are packaged into SPERMATOPHORES in the spermatophoric gland
-spermatophores are transported posteriorly to the SPERMATOPHORIC SAC where they are stored until the male is ready to mate
-spermatophoric sac is connected to the anterior portion of the vas deferens which forms the male GONODUCT
How do squids reproduce?
-male arms are modifie for sperm transfer (male gonoduct to female mantle cavity)
*arms are called HECTOCOTYLUS ARMS*
-he reachers into his mantle cavity his arm and loads it up with sperm
-caps on spermatophore rupture when removed from spermatophoric sac, exposing a sement body
-arm transfers sperm to female cavity
-cement body of spermatophore hooks to wall of the female mantle cavity
-eggs are released from the oviduct into the mantle cavity
-sperm + egg = zygote
What is a PEN in a squid?
-an internal chitinous shell extending the length of the mantle
-the pen is located dorsal to the body organs
-important in preventing the mantle from being shortened by the muscle contractions involved in movement
Describe the digestive system of the squid.
-ESOPHAGUS leads from the mouth to the STOMACH
-INTESTINE extends anteriorly from the anterior margin of the caecum to connect with the RECTUM
-esophagus and cephalic aorta extend forward until they disappear into the LARGE DIGESTIVE GLAND
-ACCESSORY DIGESTIVE GLANDS produce digestive enzymes but are also associated with the kidneys
-main digestive gland and the 2 accessory digestive glands both dump their enzymatic secretions into the ducts of the digestive gland
-the 2 ducts fuse into a single duct which joins the junction between the stomach and the caecum
-secretions from the duct can be directed to either the stomach or caecum through the regulation of a groove
Briefly review the digestive processes of Loligo (AKA squid)
-jawss tear food apart
-food passes through esophagus into the stomach
-stomach mixers food with digestive enzymes
-mixed food passes to caecum where further mixing with enzymes occur
-nutrients absorbed into the blood through the wall of the caecum
-undigestable particles move to the intestine via ciliated ridges, where they are eventually shot out through the ass with help from the excurrent canal
What structures are involved in a squids chewing process?
-MEDIAN SALIVARY GLAND produces poisons to subdue prey
-BUCCAL MASS located in the head region contains 2 beak like JAWS
-RADULA is found within the ventral part of the buccal mass in a RADULA SAC. Radula has small teeth
-the jaws and radula are used to break up larger food items into small pieces that can pass down the very narrow esophagus
What is a ganglia?
-are functionally well differentiated nervous regions
-each ganglion innervateding certain regions of the body
Describe the nervous system of the squid.
-all typical molluscan ganglia aer fused to form a BRAIN which encircles the esophagus
-brain of the squid is protected by a chitinous SKULL
-CEREBRAL GANGLIA make up the part of the brain above the esophagous
PLEAURAL GANGLIA, lateral to the esophagus, gives rise to large OPTIC NERVES which extend to the large OPTIC GANGLIA behind the eyes
-the PEDAL and VISCERAL GANGLIA are below the esophagous
-pedal ganglia innerbates the funnel
-BRACHIAL NERVES, which extend forwardinto the arems also arise from the pedal ganglia
-visceral ganglia innervates the mantle, head retractor muscle, siphon retractor muscles and the viscera
-MANTLE NERVES pass outward through the head retractor muscles to the stellate ganglia
-a large VISCERAL NERVE extends posteriorly from the brain innervateing the internal organs
-huge nervous fibers located in nerves radiating from the stellate ganglia of the squid nervous system
-they innervate the circular muscles of the mantle
-aids in increasing the speed of nervous transmission because of large diameter
What are the 2 groups of shelled Cephalopods?
-shell is sub divided into SEPTA
-gas in septa controls buoyancy

-extinct at the end of the Cretaceous period
-shells like Nautiloids but suture lines between septa and outer walls are zig zagged rather than straight and smooth
Draw and label a molluscan archetype
did you get:
-salivary gland
-digerstive gland
-shell protostyle gonad
-heart kidney
-mantle cavity
-nerve ring
Draw and label the main organs involved in digestion
did you get:
-digestive gland duct
-sorting area
-stomach fold
-style sac
Draw and label a generalized molluscan TROCHOPHORE larva.
did you get:
-apical tuft
Draw and label a generalized molluscan VELIGER larva.
did you get:
Draw and label a generalized molluscan GLOCHIDIUM.
did you get:
-byssus thread
-sensory bristles
-adductor muscle
Draw and label a sectional view of a CHITON.
did you get:
-circumesophageal nerve ring
-visceral cord
-transverse connective
-pedal cord
-mouth radula
Give 4 characteristics of the Class Monoplacophora.
-only 7 species
-platelike, coneshaped shells (single)
-6 pairs of nephridia, 5 pairs of retractor muscle, 5 pairs of gills
-they appear to be segmented
Draw and label some gastropod shells and bivalve shells.
they look nice?
look at pg. 7 and 9 of handouts
Give 6 characteristics of the class Bivalvia.
-laterally compressed animals with 2 valves
-hatchet shaped foot
-small head
-lack a radula
-big mantle cavity
-large gills
Draw and label a fresh water clam
Did you get:
-hinge ligament
-growth rings
-anterior, posterior, dorsal, ventral sides
-lateral hinge teeth
-pedal retractor muscle scar
-adductor muscle scar
-palial/mantle line
-cardinal hinge teeth
-protractor muscle scar
-anterior aorta
-digestive gland
-labial palps (look like flaps)
-foot pericardial sac
-posterior aorta
-exhalent siphon
-suprabranchial chamber
-inahalent siphon
-demibranch of right ctenidium
-mantle cavity
Draw and label the clam circulatory system.
did you get:
-oxygenated blood
Draw and label Class Scaphopoda.
did you get:
-hairlike appendages
-exhalent siphon
-body tissue
-mantle cavity
-digestive system
Draw and label a ventral view of Loligo to show external body form.
did you get:
-2 extensible tentacles
-8 arms
-exhalent opening
-olfactory crest
-olfactory groove
-visceral hump
-lateral fin
-mid ventral ridge
Draw and label a ventral view of Loligo to show the alimentary canal.
did you get:
-buccal lobe
-uccal sinus
-buccal mass
-median salivary gland
-digestive gland
-anal valve
-ink sac
-diverticulum of caecum
-accessory digestive glands
-duct of digestive gland
-duct of median salivary gland
Draw and label a ventral view of he visceral mass of a male Loligo.
did you get:
-valve inside the siphon
-cephalic vein
-gill ink sac
-brachial heart
-posterior mantle vein
-opening of vas def
-vas deferens
-middleregion of vas deferense
-spermatophoric sac
-sperm bulb
-ciliated funnel
-opening in testis wall
-genital artery and vein
-posterior region of vas deferens
-spermatophoric gland
-lateral mantle artery
-median mantle artery
-median mantle vein
-anterior mantle vein
Draw and label a ventral view of the visceral mass of a female Loligo.
did you get:
-oviducal gland
-nidamental gland
-accessory nidamental gland
Draw and label circulatory systme of a squid.
did you get:
-cephalic vein
-afferent branchial vein
-efferent branchail vein
-left branch of cephalic vein
-cephalic aorta
-anterior mantle vein
-branchial heart
-posterior aorta
-median mantle vein
-median mantle artery
-posterior mantle vein
-lateral mantle artery
Draw and label the dorsal view of a squid nervous system.
did you get:
-brachial nerve
-buccal nerve
-buccal ganglion
-optic ganglion
-cerebral ganglion
-optic nerve
-visceral ganglion
-mantle nerve
-visceral nerve
-nerve to mantle
-stellate ganglion
-olfactory nerve
Draw and label a freshwater clam, showing the folds in the mantle.
did you get:
-outer fold
-middle fold
-inner fold
-mantle margin
-inhalent siphon
-exhalent siphon
If you were to have an analogy for the demibranch as a house, what would you compare with what?
-Dry wall = lamellae
-2x4's = gill bars
-space b/w 2x4's = water tube
Draw and label a general member of the Class Aplacophora.
did you get:
-scaly body
Draw and label a close up x-sec view of a snails mouth
did you get:
-salivary gland
Draw and label the water flow path through a clam
**Make sure that exhalent and inhalent siphons are in the correct positions**
Draw and label a clam's shell layers.
did you get:
-outercalcareous layer
-mucous cells
-middle mantle fold
-inner mantle fold
-mantle epithelium
-pallial muscle
-inner calcareous layer
Draw and label a cephalopods excretory system.
did you get:
-anterior vena cava
-afferent vessel brachial heart
-efferent brachial vessel
-cephalic aorta
-kidney sac
-brachial heart appendage
-renal appendages