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56 Cards in this Set

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Develop from the myotome or somitomeres, includes eyeball muscles
axial muscles,
associated with the axial skeleton
mucsle that develops from the branchial arches
branchiomeric muscles, associated with the visceral skeleton
Develop from myotome of somites
apendicular muscle, associated with the appendicular skeleton
In fish, axial muscles on the dorsal side of the horizontal septum
epaxial muscles
In fish, axial muscles on the ventral side of the horizontal septum
hypaxial muscles
What is the function of the epaxial and hypaxial muscles in fish?
creates lateral body movment for propulsion
muscle that originates on the coracoid of the pectoral girdle
hypobranchial muscle
What is the function of the hypobranchial muscle?
Expand the mouth and pharynx, move the hyoid arch, and depress the lower jaw
This group of muscles has an origin on the orbit of the skull
eyeball mucsles
What are the function of the eyeball muscles?
moves the eyeball in various directions
What trends are seen in muscles as you move from fish to tetrapods?
metamerism is lost and muscle volume is lost
appendicular muscle become more important
Hypaxial muscle is divided into three layers
What is the function of epaxial muscles in tetrapods
to bend and move the vertebral column
What is the function of hypaxial muscles in tetrapods
flex the vertebral column, support the viscera, aid in respiration
What is the function of the hypobranchial muscles?
move the hyoid, larynx, vocal cords, or floor of the mouth
What is the function of the longisimus and spinales muscles?
Extend the vertebral column
What is the function of the intervertebratal muscles in tetrapods?
metameric, and stabilize the vertebral column
The iliocostales is most developed in which group and to aid in what?
Most developed in reptiles, it aids in lateral bending
Name three major hypaxial muscles and give their function?
External, Internal, and Transverse abdominus, sheets that run in different directions, make a sling to support internal organs
What is the location and function of the rectus abdominus?
A strap like muscle which runs down the middle of the ventral side, gives additional support to internal organs
These muscles are associated with the visceral skeleton and develop from the branchial arches, some movement involuntary
Branchiomeric muscle
This muscle raises the lower jaw in fish
the mandibular adductor
The muscle elevates the floor of the mouth
intermandibular
Compresses the first gill chamber
interhyoideus
Compress the gill chambers
Dorsal and ventral constrictors
elevates the scapular cartilage and raises the pharyngeal walls
cucullaris (fused levators)
Close the mouth and move the jaw from side to side, Originate from the mandibular adductor
Masseter and temporalis
In amphibians, derived from the interhyoideus of fish, spreads around the neck
sphincter coli
The sphincter coli of amphibians becomes this in mammals and reptiles
platysmat
What is the function of the platysma?
The movement of skin
The extensions in the head of the platysma mucsle in mammals?
mimetic mucsles (responsible for facial expressions)
Originate from arches three and four, in the neck region, turn the neck
mastoideus complex
These muscles lift the scapula, and originate from the cucullaris of fish, develop from arches three to four
Trapezius muscle
What is the location and function of the stapedius muscle?
Inserts on the stapes and contracts to protect against loud sound
What muscles are derived from the first arch and the mandibular adductor of fish?
temporalis and masseter
What muscles are derived from the hyoid arch and the interhyoideus of fish
platysma and mimetic muscles and the stapedius
What muscles are derived from the third and fourth branchial arch?
The mastoideus complex and the trapezius
These muscles have their origin on the axial skeleton
extrinsic muscles
These muscles do not have their origin on the axial skeleton
intrinsic muscles
These two muscles are the major ventral extrinsic muscles in the pectoral region
Pectoralis and Supracorocoid
The pectoralis and supracoracoid muscles serve what function in amphibians and reptiles
adductors of the forelimb
The pectoralis and supracoroacoid serve what function in birds?
The pectoralis is a major wing muscle which exerts a downward power, while the supracorocoid acts as an adductor (raises the wing)
What purpose does the pectoralis muscle have in mammals?
Important adductors
What has the supracoracoid become in mammals?
The supra and infra- spinatus muscles, becoming and intrinsic set of pectoral muscles
what is the function of the supra and infra spinatus muscles
extend the forelimb and rotate the humerus outward
In mammals this muscle extends the pes and exerts a power stroke
Gastrocnemius
What is the name of the tendon associated with the gastrocnemius in mammals and where does it insert?
Achille's Tendon, inserts on the calcaneous
What is the name of the tendon associated with the gastrocnemius in birds and where does it insert?
The perching tendon, inserts on the phalanges
This muscle is loacated in the calf region of the hindlimb?
Gastrocnemius
Inserts on the humerus and pulls the forelimb up and back in mammals
Lattisimus dorsi
Inserts on the scapula and pulls the shoulder dorsally
trapezius
Originates on the scapula and humerus, inserts on the olecranon process of ulna, extends the forearm
the triceps branchi
Originates of the scapula and inserts on the radius, responsible for the flexing of the forearm
the biceps brachii
Flexes the hand and digit, ventral musle located on forearm, tendons connect to bones within the manus and pes
Flexors of wrist and digits
Major hip muscle to adduct thigh, originate on sacral or caudal vertebrae and insert of femur
gluteus maximus
Adducts or rotates the thigh, originate on the pubis and inserts on the tibia
sartorius
Flexes the leg, originates on the ischium and inserts on the patella and tibia
biceps femoris