Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/62

Click to flip

62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the defining characteristic of algae?
-aquatic organisms that use photosynthesis to produce oxygen
-lack any multicellular protection of their reproductive structure (gametangia and sporangia)
What Kingdoms will you find algal phyla?
-Eubacteria
-Biliphyta
-Plantae
-Chromista
-Protista
What 2 main characteristics differ cyanobacteria from other bacteria?
1)cyanobacteria never possess a flagellum

2)cyanobacteria produce oxygen as a bi-product of photosynthesis
What are thylakoids?
-flattened membranous vesicles on which photosynthetic pigments are located
What are PHYCOBILISOMES?
-pigments on the surface of thylakoids(present as granules)

3 major types:
-chlorophyll a (green)
-phycocyanin (blue)
-phycoerythrin (red)
What are PHYCOBILINS?
-AKA PHYCOPROTEINS
-pigments that are joined to protein molecules
-eg: phycocyanin and phycoerythrin
-water soluble
-allows them to act as nitrogen reserves
What are the 2 lines of developement for cyanobacteria?
1)Colonial

2)Filamentous
What is a FILAMENT?
-the combination of trichome and the enveloping sheath in the blue-green algae
What is a TRICHOME?
-the chain of cells alone
What is a HETEROCYST?
-thick walled cell found at the end or in the middle of filaments
-functions to fix nitrogen in a useable form
**Only filamentous forms possess heterocysts and only these forms are normally able to fix nitrogen**
What are AKINETES?
-vegetative cells modified to function as spores
-usually grows near heterocysts
-akinete formation may be induced by the high nitrogen concentration in vegetative cells adjacent to heterocysts
**Appear more granular then Heterocysts when observed under a microscope**
What type of movement do Oscillatoria and Spirulina exhibit?
-gliding movemtents
-excretion of mucilage along helical protein fibrils on the cell wall surface is now believed to be the cause of gliding movements
Why do the trichomesof Rivularia taper from one end?
-growth form is thought to be associated with the nitrogen fixing properties of the heterocyst
-smaller cells are produced further away from the nitrogen source
Whats the difference between false branching and true branching?
-false branching is caused by the breakage of the trichome with one or both of the resulting free ends resuming growth and being held together by the sheath of the filament
-eg: tolypothrix

-true branching occurs when cells of the trichome divide longitudinally
-eg:Fischerella
What are the reproduction methods in Cyanobacteria?
-simple cell division in colonial cyanobacteria

-akinetes or framentation in filimental cyanobacteria
What is a HORMOGONIUM?
-the small section of filament enclosed by seperation discs
-when released, these homorgonia are motile and are capable of very rapid cell division to form full sixed trichomes
-they may also act as resting stages in unfavourable conditions
-Eg:Oscillatoria
Where is cyanobacteria commonly found?
-freshwater
-marine
-soil surface
-hot springs
-ice
-form symbiotic associations with both heterotrophic and autotrophic organisms
**they are very versatile**
Define SAPROPHYTIC.
-organisms that secure food from non-living organisms
Where is rhodophyta commonly found?
-red algae are predominantly a marine group
-grows on rocky sea shores and in rock pools where they are rarely exposed by the tide
Define EPIPHYTES
-organisms that attaches to another organism for stability
Are cells of red algae uninucleate or multinucleate?
-usually uninucleate but multinucleate cells predominate in the more specialized genera
What is the progression in morphology of Rhodophyta? Start with most primitive.
-unicellular form
-unbranched filaments
-branched filaments
-parenchymous forms (leafy or spread along the surface
In regards to Rhodophyta, whats the difference between uniaxial or multiaxial forms?
-uniaxial are filimentous forms with one filament

-multiaxial are filimentous forms with many filaments. Have a number of branching filaments aggregated together to form a tough parenchyma like tissue resulting in large, leafy or branching macroscopic growth forms
List and describe the generalized life cycles for Rhodophyta.
1)Gametophyte Dominant:
-zygote undergoes meiosis instead of mitosis
-result is a haploid dominant stage
-gametophyte plant may be either unicellular or multicellular

2)Alternation of Generations:
-zygote undergoes mitosis prior to meiosis resulting in a vegetative sporophyte phase
-mitosis also occurs, producing a multicellular gametophyte generation

3)Sporophyte Dominant:
-no free living gametophyte generation and the haploid meiospores produced on germination of the qygote act directly as gametes
Define ISOMORPHIC morphology.

Define ANISOMORPHIC morphology.
-2 generations that share similar morphologies

-2 generations that don't share similar morphologies
Define OOGAMOUS
-fertilization of a single nucleus in a CARPOGONIUM by a smaller, non motile male gamete, the SPERMATIUM
Define CARPOGONIUM
-the flask shaped, egg bearing portion of the female reproductive branch in Rhodophyta
-furnished with a TRICHOGYNE
Define TRICHOGYNE
-a receptive, hairlike structure on the female CARPOGONIUM
-trichogyne recieves the spermatia
What is a CARPOSPOROPHYTE?
-this is what you call the CYSTOCARP after it's been fertilized
-bears several reproductive structures called CARPOSPORANGIA
What is CARPOSPORANGIA?

Explain the shit that happens in there to complete the life-cycle.
-reproductive structures on CARPOSPOROPHYTE
-produces CARPOSPORES inside by mitosis
-CARPOSPORES germinate to produce a multicellular diploid SPOROPHYTE GENERATION (*Sometimes known as TETRASPOROPHYTE)
-meioisis then occurs in the SPORANGIA of the sporophyte to form haploid SPORES which germinate to produce the gametophyte generation
Describe the life cycle of Porphyra.
-an alternation of anisomorphic generations
-the gametangia are no more than altered vegetative cells
-carpogonium becomes the carposporangium after fertilization and produces many diploid carpospores
-carpospore germination leads to a diploid filamentous sporophyte, the CONCHOCELIS stage
-divides meiotically to produce meiospores called CONCHOSPORES. Germinate to produce the foliose gametophyte generation
In Polysiphonia, what do the branches consist of?
Axile cells:
-goes down the center of the branch

Pericentral cells:
-around the inner perimeter of the branch
Define TRICHOBLASTS
-short lateral branches found on Polysiphonia
-bears both male and female reproductive structures on their respective form
In detail, describe the life cycle of Polysiphonia.
-an alternation of isomorphic generations... therefore gametophyte and sporophyte generations are identical in vegetative structures
-spermatangia and carpognium are born on trichoblasts, derived from pericentral cells of different gametophyte plants
-spermatangium produces a single, nonmotlie spermatium
-pericentral cells at the base of the trichoblast begin to divide and form a vegetative PERICARP around the carpogonium as it develops
-once spermatium fertalizes carpogonium, the zygote produces a series of filaments by mitosis
-each of these diploid filaments gives rise to a CARPOSPORANGIUM, containing a SINGLE DIPLOID CARPOSPORE
-carpospores are released from the cystocarp and give rise to a free living sporophyte generation called a TETRASPOROPHYTE
-meiosis takes place within the TETRASPORANGIA to form a TETRASPORE(4 haploid spores)
-these spores germinate to produce the gametophyte generation again
What is a CARPOSPOROPHYTE?
-the combination of diploid filaments and carposporangia in the life cycle of Polysiphonia
-the female gametophyte
What is a CYSTOCARP?
-the CARPOSPORANGIA and the PERICARP
Define foliose thallus.
-leaf like morphology
Domain - Bacteria
Kingdom - Eubacteria
Phylum - Cyanobacteria
What genus were studied under the order Chroococcales?
1)Gloeocapsa
Domain - Eukarya
Kingdom - Biliphyta
Phylum - Rhodophyta
What genus were studied under the order Bangiales(2)?
1)Porphyra
2)Corallina
Domain - Bacteria
Kingdom - Eubacteria
Phylum - Cyanobacteria
What genus were studied under the order Nostocales(7)?
1)Nostoc
2)Anabaena
3)Rivularia
4)Gloeotrichia
5)Oscillatoria
6)Spirulina
7)Tolypothrix
Domain - Bacteria
Kingdom - Eubacteria
Phylum - Cyanobacteria
What genus were studied under the order Stigonematales(1)?
1)Fischerella
Domain - Eukarya
Kingdom - Biliphyta
Phylum - Rhodophyta
What genus were studied under the order Acrochaetiales?
1)Acrochaetium
Domain - Eukarya
Kingdom - Biliphyta
Phylum - Rhodophyta
What genus were studied under the order Ceramiales(3)?
1)Antithamnion
2)Polysiphonia
3)Chondrus
What are PAPILLA?
-peg like thickenings in the end walls of heterocyst cells
-pores pass through these thickenings to the adjacent cell
-allows movement of nitrogen
What are SEPARATION DISCS?
-dead vegetative cells
-usually where breakage occurs
What are some defining characteristics of the Phylum Rhodophyta?
-has more phycoerythrin than phycocyanain
-has floridean starch
-can't use glycolysis
-no flagella
-centrioles have (9x2)+2 configuration
What are meiospores?
-haploid spores
-pretty much the exact same thing as a gamete
In Rhodophyta, what 2 general things can happen to the zygote after fertilization?
1)Can divide mitotically to produce a diploid plant (SPOROPHYTE GENERATION)

2)divide meiotially and give rise to haploid spores (meiospores). Population increases in size by mitosis. Meiospores develope into the GAMETOPHYTE GENERATION
Define SPERMATIUM
-the male gamete
Define SPERMATANGIA
-the male gametangia/antheridium
-like the plant nuts
Draw and label GLOEOCAPSA
Did you get:
-colony
-mucilaginous matrix
-vegetative cell
Draw and label NOSTOC
Did you get:
-filament
-trichome
-gelatinous sheath
-vegetative cell
-heterocyst
Draw and label ANABAENA
Did you get:
-trichome
-gelatinous sheath
-vegetative cell
-heterocyst
-akinete
Draw and label RIVULARIA
Did you get:
-trichome
-vegetative cell
-heterocyst
-colony
Draw and label GLOEOTRICHIA
Did you get:
-trichome
-gelatinous sheath
-vegetative cell
-heterocyst
-akinete
Draw and label SPIRULINA
Did you get:
-one single vegetative cell
Draw and label OSCILLATORIA
Did you get:
-trichome
-vegetative cell
-hormogonium
-separation discs
Draw and label TOLYPOTHRIX
Did you get:
-vegetative cell
-trichome
-false branches
Draw and label PORPHYRA
Did you get:
-thallus
Draw and label ACROCHAETIUM
Did you get:
-primary filament
-branch
-vegetative cell
Draw and label ANTITHAMNION
Did you get:
-sporophyte
-filament
-branch
-tetrasporangium
-tetraspore
Draw and label POLYSIPHONIA
Did you get:
-male gametophyte
-branch
-pericentral cell
-trichoblast
-spermatangium
-female gametophyte
-cystocarp
-pericarp
-carposporophyte
-carposporangium
-carpospore
-tetrasporophyte
-tetrasporangium
-tetraspor