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21 Cards in this Set

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Carats
Gemstone mass, 0.2 grams.
Metals
Elements on the left side of the dividing line on the periodic table.
Non-Metals
Elements on the right side of the dividing line on the periodic table.
Metalloids
Elements touching the dividing line on the periodic table.
Ionic Bonds
Atoms are bound by the attraction of opposite ions. Between metal and non-metal.
Covalent Bonds
Atoms are bonded by the sharing of electrons. Between non-metals.
Van der Waals Forces
Molecular bonds.
Color
The color of the rock.
Luster
Shininess
Glassy -> Earthy for non-metals
Metallic -> Earthy for metals
Crystal Shapes
Hexagonal. Isometric(Cubic). Tetragonal. Orthorhombic. Monoclinic. Triclinic.
Streak
The color of the rock when rubbed off on a plate/something else.
Cleavage
Tendency to split along a plane. If there are shiny faces then the rock has cleavage.
Fracture
"Ugly" split. Not on a plane.
Hardness Scale
Talc(1) -> Gypsum(2) -> Calcite(3) -> Flourite(4) -> Apatite(5) -> Feldspar(6) -> Quartz(7) -> Topaz(8) -> Corundum(9) -> Diamond(10)
Specific Gravity
The ratio of the density of an object to the density of water. SG = D(Object) / D(Water)
It has no units.
The acid test.
If a mineral/rock has calcite in it then acid will dissolve it.
Magnetic
Attracts/Repels other magnetic objects.
Flourescence
When it absorbs a photon it emits another one with longer wavelength. Absorbed photon is normally ultraviolet and the emitted on is visible.
Phosphorescent
Continues to emit light for a while after it is in light. Glow-in-the-dark.
Radioactive
Horray. It's radioactive.
Double Refraction
Birefringence, or double refraction, is the decomposition of a ray of light into two rays (the ordinary ray and the extraordinary ray) when it passes through certain types of material, such as calcite crystals, depending on the polarization of the light.