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38 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
info. processing model
model of memory that assumes the processing of info. for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory in a series of 3 stages.
unconditioned response
(UCR)
an involuntary response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus.
neutral stimulus
(NS)
stimulus that has no effect on the desired response.
conditioned stimulus
(CS)
stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned reflex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus.
conditioned response
(CR)
learned reflex response to a conditioned stimulus.
stimulus generalization
the tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response.
stumulus discrimination
the tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus b/c the similar timulus is never paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
extinction
the disapperarance or weaking of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus.
reinforcer
any event or object that,when following a response, increases the likelihood of that response occurring again.
spontaneous recovery
the reapperance of a learned response after extinction has occurred.
higher-order conditioning
occurs when a strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus, causeing the neutral stimulus to become a second conditioned stimulus.
conditioned emotional response
(CER)
emotional response that has becme classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli, such as a fear of dogs or the emotional reaction that occurs when seeing an attractive person.
vicarious conditioning
classical conditioning of a refelx response or emotional by watching the reaction of another person.
conditioned tast aversion
development of a nausea or aversive response to a particular taste b/c that taste was followed by a nausea reaction, occuring after only one association.
biological perparedness
refurring to the tendency of animals to learn certin associations, such as taste and nausea, with only one or few parings due to the servival valuse of the learning.
stimulus substitution
original therory in which Pavlov stated that classical conditioning occurred b/c the conditioned stimulus became a subtitute for the unconditioned stimulus by being paired closely together.
congnitive perspective
modern theory in which classical conditioning is seen to occur because the conditioned stimulus provides info. or an expectancy about the coming of the unconditioned stimulus.
operant conditioning
the learnign of voluntary behavior throught the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses.
law of effect
law that stated that if a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated, and if followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated.
operant
any behavior that is voluntary.
reinforcement
any event or stimulus, that when following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again.
pimary reinforcer
any reinforcer that is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need, such as hunger, thirst, or touch.
secondary reinforcer
any reinforcer that becomes reinorcing after being paired wiht a primary reinforcer, such as praise, tokens, or gold stars.
positive reinforcement
the reinforcement of a response by the addition or exponse by the addition or experiencing of a pleasurable stimulus.
negative reinforcement
the reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus.
shaping
the reinforcement of simple steps in behavior that lead to a desired, more complex behavior.
successive approximations
small steps in behavior, one after the other, that lead to a particular goal behavior.
discriminative stimulus
any stimulus, such as a stop sign or a doorknob, that provides the organism with a cue for making a certin response in oder to obtain reinforcement.
partial reinforcement effect
the tendency for a response that is reinfored after some, but not all, correct responses to be very resistant to etinction.
continuous reinforement
the reinforement of each and every correct response.
fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement
shcedule of reinforement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same.
variable ratio schedule of reinforcement
schedule of reinforcement in which the number of resoonses required for reinforecement is different ofr each trial or event.
fixed interval schedule of reinforcement
shcedule of reinforecement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforecement becomes possibe is always the same.
variable interval schedule of reinforcement
schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforecement becomes possible is different for each trial or event.
punishment
any event or objecti that, when following a response makes that response less likely to happne again.
punishment by application
the punishment of a response by the addition or experienceing of an unpleasant sutmulus.
punishment by removal
the punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable stimulus.
instinctive drift
tendency for an animal's behavior to revert to genetically controlled patterns.