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76 Cards in this Set

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RANGE OF A PIGMENT'S ABILITY TO ABSORB VARIOUS WAVELENGHTS OF LIGHT
ABSORPTION SPECTRUM
ENTRY COMPOUND FOR THE KREBS CLYCLE IN CELLULAR RESPIRATION AND FORMED FROM PYRUVATE
ACETYL CoA
NUCLEOTIDE with two phosphate groups that can accept another phosphate group and become atp
ADP
containing oxygen; referring to an organism, enviornment or cellular process that requires oxygen
aerobic
nucleotide with one phosphate group that van vecome ATP with the addition of two phosphate groups
AMP
lacking oxygen, referring to an organism enviornment or cellular process that lacks oxygen and may be poisoned by it.
ANAEROBIC
several hundred chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid molecules that function as a light gathering unit to absorb photons and pass energy from molecule to molecule.
ANTENNA COMPLEX
nucleotide with theree phosphate groups that contains chemically bonded energy that can be used for the energ-requiring processes in cells.
ATP
cluster of several membrane proteins found in the mitochondrial cristae that functionin chemiosmosis by providing a port through which hydrogen ions diffuse into the matrix of a mitochondrion.
ATP SYNTHASE
the formation of adenosine triphosphate. (ATP)
ATP SYNTHESIS
organism that uses energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic molecules.
AUTOTROPH
uses the CALVIN CYCLE for the initial steps that incorporate carbon dioxide into organic material, forminf a theree-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate.
C plant
3
prefaces the CALVIN CYCLE with reactions that incorporate carbon dioxide into four-carbon compounds, the end product of which supplies carbon dioxide for the Calvin cycle.
C plant
4
second of two major stages in photosynthesis involving atomspheric carbon dioxide fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate.
Calvin Cycle
uses crassulacean acid metabolism to fix carbon dioxide at night to produce a C4 molecule that releases carbon dioxide to the Calvin cycle during the day.
CAM plant
incorporation of carbon from carbon dioxide into an organic compound by an autotrophiv organism.
Carbon fixation
accessory pigments, yellow and orange, in the chloroplasts of plants that absorb wavelenghts of light that chlorophyll cannot and therefore broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis.
Carotenoids
metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds.
Catabolic pathway
most common and efficent catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which oxygen is cnsumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel.
Cellular respiration
production of ATP using the energy of hydrogen-ion gradients avross membranes to phosphorylate ADP; powere most ATP synthesis in cells.
CHEMIOSMOSIS
organism that needs only carbon dioxide as a carbon source but that obtains energy by oxidizing inorganic substances.
CHEMOAUTOTROPH
green pigmeNT located within the chloroplasts of plants that absorbs solar energy and is important in photosynthesis.
CHLOROPHYLL
membrane-bound organelle in algae and plants with chlorophyll-containg membranous thylakoids and is the site for photosynthesis.
CHLOROPLAST
nonprotein organic molecule that aids the action of the enzyme to which it is loosely bound.
COENZYME
infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
CRISTAE
route opf electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves only photosystem I and produces ATP but not NADPH or oxygen.
cyclic electron flow
in photosynthesis, the path taken by a light-excited electron from a photosystem I and produces ATP but not NADPH or oxygen.
cyclic phosphorylation
any of several iron-containg protein prigments that serve as electron carriers in transport chains of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
cytochrome complex
CYTOCHROME COMPLEX
series of iron-containg protein pigments that serve as electron carries in transport chains of photosyntheis and cellular respiration.
DEPHOSPHORYLATION
evidenced by the removal of a phosphate from a molecule.
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
solar radiation divided on the basis of wavelength, with gamma rays having the shortest wavelength and radio waves have the longest wavelength.
passage of electrons along a series of membrane-bound carrier molecules from a higher to lower energy level producing energy which is used in the production of ATP.
ELECTRON TRANport system
reduced coenzyme that links glycosis and the KREBS cycke to oxidative phosphorylation.
fadh
2
anaerobic breakdown of glucos ethat results in a gain of two ATP and end products such as alcohol and lactate.
fermentation
membrane-bound protein serving as an electron acceptor in photosystem I.
ferredoxin
product of the Calvin cycle that can be combined to form glucose in other cellular processes.
g3p
simple sugar that contains bond energy that is released during cellular respiration.
glucose
meabolic pathway that is charavterized by the splitting of glucose into pyruvate
glycolysis
stacks of chlorophyll-containg thylakoids in a chloroplast
grana
heterotroph
organism that cannot synthesize organic compunds from inorganic substances and therefore must take in performed food.
chemical cycle, taking place in the mitochondria, involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide.
krebs cycle
steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, evolving oxygen in the process.
light reactions
INNER, THICKEST LAYER OF A LEAG CONSISTING OF PALISADE AND SPONGY MESOPHYLL THAT IS SPECIALIZED FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS.
MESOPHYLL
COENZYME PRESENT IN ALL CELLS THAT HELPS ENZYMES TRANSFER ELECTRONS DURING THE REDOX REACTIONS OF METABOLISM.
NAD+
REDUCED COENZYME THAT PLAYS AN IMPORTANT PART IN ENERGY FLOW IN CELLULAR RESPIRATION.
NADH
COENZYME THAT BECOMES NADPH DURING THE LIGHT REACTIONS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND REDUCES PARTICIPANTS IN THE CALBIN CYLE DURING THE LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTIONS.
NADP+
ROUTE OF ELECTRON FLOW DURING THE LIGHT REACTIONS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS THAT INVOLVES BOTH PHOTOSYSTEMS AND PRODUCES ATP,NADPH, AND OXYGEN; THE NET ELECTRON FLOW IS FROM WATER TO NADP+.
NON CYCLIC ELECTRON FLOW
PRODUCTION OF ATP BY NONCYCLIC ELECTRON FLOW AND NADPH.
NONCYCLIC PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION
LOSS OF ELECTRONS FROM A SUBSTANCE INVOLVED WITH REDOX REACTIONS.
OXIDATION
CHEMICAL REACTION INVOLVING THE TRANSFER OF ONE OR MORE ELCECTRONS FROM ONE REACTANT TO ANOTHER.
REDOX REACTIONS
PRODUCTION OF ATP USING ENERGY DERIVED FROM THE REDOX REACTIONS OF AN ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN.
OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
ELECTRON ACCEPTOR IN A REDOX REACTION.
OXIDIZING AGENT
REACTION CENTER CHLOROPHYLL POSITIONED NEAR A STRONG A MEMBRANE-BOUND ELECTRON ACCEPTOR IN PHOTOSYSTEM II, THAT PASSES ENERGY TO A PRIMARY ELECTON ACCEPTOR.
P680
REACTION CENTER CHLOROPHYLL POSITIONED NEAR A STRONG A MEMBRANE-BOUND ELECTRON ACCEPTOR IN PHOTOSYSTEM I, THAT PASSES ENERGY TO A PRIMARY ELECTON ACCEPTOR.
P700
EVIDENCED BY THE ADDITION OF A PHOSPHATE MOLECULE
PHOSPHORYLATED
ORGANISM THAT HARNESSES LIGHT ENERGY TO DRIVE THE SYNTHESIS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM CARBON DIOXIDE.
PHOTOAUTOTROPH
QUANTUM, OR DISCRETER AMOUNT, OF ENERGY.
PHOTONS
process of generation ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton-motive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION
conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in glucose or other organic compounds.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
light-harvesting unit in photosynthesis,located on the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast and consisting of the antenna complex, the reacion-center chlorphll a , and the primary electron acceptor.
PHOTOSYSTEM
molecule that absorbs certain wavelengths of light and reflects or transmits others.
PIGMENT
receives excited electrons from the reaction center chlorophyll
PRIMARY ELECTRON ACCEPTOR
difference in electrochemical balance resulting from an unequal distribution of hydrogen ions on either side of a biological membrane.
PROTON GRADIENT
POTENTIAL ENEGY STORED INT THE FORM OF AN ELECTROCHEMICAL GRADIENT, GENERATED BY THE PUMPING OF HYDROGEN IONS ACROSS BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES DURING CHEMIOSMOSIS.
PROTON-MOTIVE FORCE
END PRODUCT OF GLYCOLYSIS.
PYRUVATE
SPECIFIC MOLECULE THAT RECEIVES EXCITED ENERGY WITHIN THE PHOTOSYSTEM AND PASEES THEI ENERGY TO THE PRIMARY ELECTRON ACCEPTOR.
REACTION CENTER
ELECTRON DONOR IN A REDOX REACTION
REDUCTING AGENT
GAINING OF ELECTRONS BY A SUBSTANCE INVOLVED IN A REDOX REACTION.
REDUCTION
ENZYME THAT CATALYZES THE FIRST STEP OF THE CALVIN CYCLE(ADDITION OF CO2 TO RuBP.
RUBISCO
MICROSCOPIC PORES SURROUNDED BY GUARD CELLS IN THE EPIDERMIS OF LEAVES AND STEMS THAT ALLOWS GAS EXCHANCE.
STROMATA
fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
stroma
formaiton of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from a n intermediat(diphosoglyceride) substrate in catabolism.
substrate-level phosphorylation
flatened membrande sav inside the chloroolast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.
thylakoid
an electron acceptor in the electron transport chain.
ubiquinone
primary xylem and primary phloem enclosed by a bundle sheath serving as a trasnport system for water and nutrients.
vascular bundle
portion of the electromagnetic spectrum detected as carious colors by the human eye, ranging in wavelength from about 400nm to about 700nm.
visible light