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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is photorespiration?
the process that prevents sugar production in C3 plants when carbon dioxide is low and oxygen is high
What is photosynthesis?
light energy-->ATP
combination of inorganic molecules (CO2 and H2O) into organic, energy-rich molecules
Photosynthesis usually occurs in the ________ of the leaves because these cells contain the most chloroplasts
Light-dependent reaction
ATP is produced by chemiosmosis (high-energy electrons move from carrier to carrier in the electron transport system and some of the energy is used to pump hydrogen ions across the thylakoid membrane)
Oxygen that we breathe comes from:
Oxygen that is given off by plants that split water --the source is water
Electrons that are continuously lost during photosynthesis are replaced by:
Carbon fixation
atmospheric carbon dioxide-->PGA
Photorespiration occurs when:
Oxygen is combined with RuBP and the stomata are closed
How have C4 plants adapted to environmental conditions?
-PEP instead of RuBP
-PEP is highly specific for CO2 even with high O2
-high CO2 allows regular C3 cycle to proceed
The mesophyll cells in C4 plants contain:
a three-carbon molecule called PEP
C3 cycle
1-carbon fixation
2-synthesis of G3P
3-regeneration of RuBP
Light-independent reaction
Enzymes in the stroma use the chemical energy of the carrier molecules to drive the SYNTHESIS OF GLUCOSE or other ORGANIC MOLECULES
Absorb blue and green light and reflect mostly yellow, orange, or red
Absorb green and yellow and reflect blue or purple
Accesory pigments
capture light energy and transfer it to chlorophyll
The key light-capturing molecule in thylakoid membranes
What does Photosystem II produce?
What does Photosystem I produce?
contains the vast majority of a leaf's chloroplasts (photosynthesis occurs here)
6CO2+6H2O+light energy -->
C6H12O6+6O2 (glucose and oxygen)
Carbon fixed during the C3 cycle is used:
to synthesize glucose
Calvin-Benson cycle/C3 cycle requires:
1) CO2--from the air
2) RuBP to capture sugar
3) enzymes to catalyze reactions
4) energy (ATP and NADPH) from light-dependent reactions
Closing the stomata--1 advantage and 2 disadvantages
1+reduces evaporation
1-reduces CO2 intake
2-restricts the release of oxygen

WASTEFUL PHOTORESPIRATION (carbon cannot be fixed)
Best pathway when water is plentiful or light is low
Best pathway when light is high but water is low
C4 (hot and dry--almost no photorespiration)
In a C4 plant, chloroplasts are located in:
the mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells
How are the light-dependent and light-independent reactions related?
The light-dependent reactions produce the energy that fuels the light-independent reactions
Photosystems are organized arrays of:
-pigment molecules
In a C3 plant, chloroplasts are located in:
The primary function of hte vascular tissue system in plants is to __________.
transport water, minerals, and sugars throughout the plant
A primary functoin of the dermal tissue system is to ___________.
cover and protect the outer surfaces of the plant
The primary photosynthetic cells of dicot leaves are ____________.
mesophyll parenchyma cells
Vascular tissue of plants is composed of _______________.
-xylem for moveing water and minerals
-phloem for moving products of photosynthesis
During secondary growth, the vascular cambium _____________.
divides to form xylem toward the center and phloem outward
When a tree loses its bark, the first thing to happen would be __________.
death of the roots of the tree because they wouldn't be getting carbs from the leaves
A tree trunk increases in size due to:
Secondary growth caused by mitotic cell division and cell differentiation
A carrot contains what type of ground tissue?