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60 Cards in this Set

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red to blue photosynthetic accessory pigment
adenine triphosphate. Nucleotide made of adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups; main energy carrier in cells
ATP Synthase
membrane bound active transport protein that acts as an enzyme of ATP formation
an organism makes its own food using an evironmental energy source and carbon from carbon dioxide - it is self nourishing, (for example plants, many bacteria, and protists). They tap into an environmental energy source to make food.
self feeding
C3 Plant
plant that makes 3 carbon PGA in the first step of carbon fixation
C4 Plant
plant that makes four carbon oxaloacetate in the first step of carbon fixation
Calvin-Benson Cycle
light independent cyclic reactions of photosynthesis. Forms sugar from CO2 using ATP and NADPH
CAM Plant
plant that conserves water b opening stomata onl at night, when it fixes carby by repeated turns of the C4 pathway
red to yellow accessory pigment
chlorophyll a
primary photosynthetic pigment
organisms that are unable to make its own organic compounds, feeds on autotrophs, other heterotrophs or organic wastes. most bacteria, all fungi, and all animals. cannot make their own food
light dependent reaction
the first stage of photosynthesis. sunlight energy is trapped and converted to chemical energy of ATP, NADPH, or both, depending on the pathway
light independent reactions
second stage of photosynthsis in which sugars are formed from CO2 using ATP and NADPH. Also called the Calvin Benson Cycle
- a process where plants make food by using no more than sunlight energy, water and CO2 (carbon dioxide)
in photosynthetic cells, a cluster of membrane bound, light trapping pigments and other molecules (200-300 pigments clustered together that trap energy from the sun)
red to blue photosynthetic accessory pigment
any light absorbing molecule
RuBP carboxylase. Enzyme that catalyzes attachment of a carbon atom from carbon dioxide to RuBP and starts the C3 photosynthetic pathway.
stomata; a gap between two guard cells in lear or stem epidermis; allows the diffusion of water vapor and gases across the epidermis.
thylakoid membrane
in plants, internal portion of a choloroplast's membrane system often folded into flattened sacs, that forms a single compartment. Pigments and enzymes are embedded in it, it is the site of photosynthesis.
yellow-orange carotenoid. Accessory pigment.
What wavelengths are colors?
colors that are not absorbed are the ones visible.
individual packets of electromagnetic energy traveling in waves
Short photons result in ______ amounts of energy?
higher energy
ATP (adenine triphospate)
main energy carrier in all living cells. Nucleotide comprised a 5 carbon sugar (ribose), adenine, and 3 phosphate groups.
How many stages does photosynthesis have? and what are they?
2 stages: light dependent, and light independent
What happens in light dependent reactions? (3)
- light energy is converted into a chemical bond of ATP
- water molecules are split
- the co-enzyme NADP+ picks up released electrons and hydrogen. (once NADP+ is reduced, it is then called NADPH)
What happens in light-independent reactions?
the energy from ATP jump starts reactions that create glucose and other carbohydrates.
- NADPH gives up electrons and hydrogen ions and these bond with carbon and oxygen to form glucose.
What is the chemical equation for the reaction of photosynthesis?
12H20 + 6CO2 ----> 602 + C6H12O6 + 6H20

oxygen and carbon dioxide with the combination of light energy and enzymes result in the products of oxygen, glucose and water.
a semi-fluid interior of the chloroplasts 2 outer membranes
Where is the thylakoid membrane located?
located inside the stroma
What are inside the thylakoids?
inside the thylakoids are photosystems
What are photosystems?
clusters of 200-300 pigments, and other molecules that trap energy from the sun.
What are the two types of photosystems?
Photosystem I and II
What do thylakoid membranes resemble?
thylakoid membranes resemble stacks of flattened sacs, which are connected by channels - the interiors of all sacs & channels interconnect, forming a single compartment.
What is NADP+?
it is a co-enzyme that picks up the electrons and hydrogen and is used in the 2nd stage of photosynthesis (the Calvin-Benson cycle) to form sugars.
Where are photons absorbed?
They are absorbed by pigments.
Once a photo absorbs the energy of a pigment, what happens?
The photons energy will boost the electrons to a higher energy.
If nothing happens when a photon absorbs the energy of a pigment, what happens to the electrons?
If nothing happens, the electrons will drop back to its unexcited state, and will lose any extra energy which will be emitted as heat, or photon (visible as flourescent light.)
What is an electron transfer chain?
cell membrane components, that are arranged with an array of enzymes, co-enzymes, and proteins through which electrons are transferred.
If the energy in electrons arent lost, what happens to it?
energy is absorbed by pigments, and it is passed on from one to another, until it reaches a photosystem.
What happens once energy reaches a photosystem?
the energy is bounced off via chlorophyll a molecules, and electrons, and it enters the electron transfer chain.
Why is the entry of electron from the photosystem to the electron transfer chain significant?
The entry of the electron from the photosystem to the electron transfer chain is the first step in light dependent reactions -- the conversion of photon energy into chemical energy.
How is ATP formed?
ATP is formed through ion flow though the membrane with attachments of inorganic phosphates to ADP in the stroma.
What happens once electron transfer chains are used?
Operation of the transfer chains results in the formation of the energy carrier ATP and the reduced coenzyme NADPH.
What happens to electrons in teh cyclic pathway of ATP?
Photosystem 1 gets a boost of photon energy, and it loses and electron. The electron that is lost is passed through the electron transfer chain, and loses energy in the process -- it is then reused by the photosystem I, and the molecules in the transfer chain will carry H+ across the thylakod into its inner compartment. Hydrogen ions accumulating in the compartment will created an electrochemical gradient.
what is a wavelength?
the horizontal distance between two successive waves.
what are wavelengths of visible light?
wavelengths that are 380-750 nanometers. (these are the wavelengths that drive photosynthesis.
What is light made of?
photons, individual packets of electromagnetic energy traveling in waves.
What do short photon wavelengths result in?
higher energy.
a class of molecules that absorb photons with particular wavelengths.
What is Chlorophyll a? and what is it best at?
it is the most abundant type of pigment in plants, green algae, and a number of photoautotrophic bacteria. Best at absorbing red and violet wavelengths.
What is cholorphyll b? and what does it do?
it is an accessory pigment that enhances efficiency of photosynthetic reactions by capturing additional wavelenths.
what colors are reflected by carotenoids?
red, orange, and yellow.
yellow, brown, purple and blue accessory pigments.
a red purple pigment that is shown through in autumn due to the decline in chlorophyll content.
what is the first step in the light dependent reactions?
the entry of electrons into an electron transfer chain.
What are electron transfer chains?
these are cell membrane components, that are organized arrays of enzymes, coenzymes, and other proteins though which electrons are transferred.
What do H ions need in order to cross the membrane?
ATP Synthases
What happens in the process of photolysis?
photosystem II replaces lost electrons by pulling them from water molecules - which then dissociate into hydrogen ions and molecular oxygen.