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31 Cards in this Set

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Calvin Benson Cycle (pathway for building glucose subunits)
RuBP from CO2 fixation split into 2 PGA. ATP gives a phosphate group to the PGA. NADPH gives hydrogen & electons forming PGAL.
total yield of ATP from aerobic and anaerobic respiration
aerobic - 36 ATP
anaerobic - 2 ATP
3 events that take place during light-dependent reactions
1. pigments absorb light energy & give up electrons
2. electron & hydrogen transfers lead to development of ATP & NADPH
3. pigment that gave up electrons has them replaced
3 functions of the 2nd stage of aerobic respiration
1.pyruvate broken down into water
2.strips hydrogen & electrons
3.stores (2)as coenzymes & transports them to 3rd stage
3 stages of aerobic respirations and what happens
1. glycolosis
2. krebs cycle - pyruvate is broken down into CO2 and water
3.electon transport phosphorylation-produces 32ATP
what energy releasing pathway is used by bacteria
anaerobic electron transport
net energy yield of glycolosis
2 ATP
2 types of fermentation, what organisms use them, how much ATP is produced, from what part of reaction is produced
lactate and alcoholic - bacteria and protists, 2 ATP, glycolosis
Where do light dependent and light independent reactions happen in the chloroplast?
light-dependent - thylakoid membrane in the grana
light-independent - stroma
3 sources the body uses for storing and/or obtaining energy
carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids
why doesn't all energy produces become available for other reactions
its used to sustain the reactions
electron transport systems
organized sequence of enzymes & coenzymes bound to a membrane
what 2 pathways make ATP and which is more efficient?
cyclic & noncyclic
noncyclic is more efficient
how do plants store their sugar phosphates and why in those forms?
sucrose - most easily transportable sugar
starch - osmotically inactive
equation for photosynthesis

12H20 + 6CO2 -----> 6O2 + C6H12O6 + 6H2O
3 general types of pigments found in chloroplasts and what they absorb
chlorophylls - violet to blue and red
carotenoids - violet and blue
phycobilins - yellow and green
difference between C3, C4, and CAM plants
C3 - less sensitive to cold, fix CO2 during day
C4 - very hot growing season, fix CO2 during day
CAM - fix CO2 only at night, adapted to levels of low moisture, stomata closed during the day
raw materials used in light-independent reaction
carbon dioxide, ATP, hydrogen, and electrons
2 products resulting from light-dependent reactions and what they provide
ATP - energy
NADPH - electrons and hydrogen
equation for anaerobic respiration
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -------> 6CO2 + 6H2O
where aerobic & anaerobic pathways take place and the final acceptor of electrons
aerobic - cytoplasm, mitochondria - oxygen
anaerobic - cytoplasm, anything but oxygen
light dependent reactions
energy from sunlight is absorbed and converted to ATP energy. Water molecules split and the hydrogen and electrons from splitting of water and becomes NADPH.
chemoautotrophs vs. photosynthetic organisms
chemoautotrophs use other chemicals for energy (sulfate)
photosynthetic use the sun as a source of energy
3 energy releasing pathways
aerobic respiration
anaerobic respiration
fermentation
light independent reactions
ATP donates energy to places producing glucose. Carbon dioxide splits to provide carbon and oxygen. Water splits to form hydrogen.
by-product of light-dependent reaction and why its important
oxygen - it allowed an oxygen rich atmosphere to build up allowing animals to live and plants to expand population
What are the final products of photosynthesis?
sucrose, starch, and other carbohydrates
sugar phosphate is building block for what substances
glucose and sucrose
what are products of photosynthesis used for in a plant?
they are the building blocks for
-reparing, growth, survival, and reproduction
Glycolosis
splits and rearragnes glucose into pyruvate, produces 4 molecules of ATP but only 2 are needed, oxygen is not used, happens in cytoplasm, 1st step in 3 pathways
carbon dioxide fixation
carbon dioxide is split apart and attaches to RuBP