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38 Cards in this Set

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photosynthesis
the process by which light energy is converted to chemical bond energy and carbon is fixed into organic compounds
2 main types of photosynthesis
1) light dependent
2) light-independent
light reactions (light dependent)
use light energy directly to produce ATP that powers the light-independent reactions
chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b
they are green and absorb all wavelengths of light in the red, blue, and violet range
carotenoids
are yellow, orange, and red. they absorb light in the blue, green, and violet range
pigments found in red algae
the phycobilins
phycobilins
-pigments found in red algae
-reddish and absorb light in the blue and green range
antenna pigments
-chlorophyll b and the carotenoids are called this because they capture light in wavelengths other than those captured by chlorophyll a
pigments found in red algae
the phycobilins
the pigment that is directly involved in the transformation of light energy to sugars
chlorophyll a
phycobilins
-pigments found in red algae
-reddish and absorb light in the blue and green range
light reactions occur in the
grana
antenna pigments
-chlorophyll b and the carotenoids are called this because they capture light in wavelengths other than those captured by chlorophyll a
light-independent reactions (calvin cycle) occur in the
stroma
the pigment that is directly involved in the transformation of light energy to sugars
chlorophyll a
the grana consists of layers of membranes called
thylakoids
light reactions occur in the
grana
the chloroplast is enclosed by a ___membrane
double
light-independent reactions (calvin cycle) occur in the
stroma
photosystems
light-harvesting complexes in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts
the grana consists of layers of membranes called
thylakoids
each photosystem consists of
a reaction center containing chlorophyll a
the chloroplast is enclosed by a ___membrane
double
photosystems
light-harvesting complexes in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts
each photosystem consists of
a reaction center containing chlorophyll a
photosystem 1 absorbs light best in the ____nanometer range, hence photosystem 1 is called_____
700
-P700 (called)
photosystem 2 absorbs light best in the___nanometer range, hence photosystem 2 is called____
680
-P680 (called)
noncyclic phosphorylation
1) energy absorbed by P680
2) energy from chlorophyll a captured by primary electron acceptor
3) water gets split apart, providing electrons to replace those lost from chlorphyll a in P680.
4) electron transport chain (electrons from P680 pass along an ETC consisting of plastoquinone and ends up in P700.)
5) chemiosmosis (ATP is formed during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
6) NADP becomes reduced with it picks up 2 protons that were released from water in P680. newly formed NADPH carries hydrogen to the calvin cycle
7) P700 absorbs energy. this electron transport chain ends with the production of NADPH and not ATP
photolysis
splits water into 2 electrons, 2 H+, and one oxygen atome
-2 oxygen atoms combine to form one O2 moelcule
electron transport chain of photosynthesis
electrons from P680 pass along an ETC consisting of plastoquinone (PQ)
-this flow of electrons is exeronic and provides energy to make ATP by chemiosmosis
chemiosmosis of photosynthesis
-process by which ATP is formed during the light reactions of photosynthesis
-protons released from water during photolysis are pumped by thlakoid membrane from stroma into the lumen.
-ATP is formed as these protons diffuse down the gradient from the thylakoid space, through the ATP synthase channgels, and into the stroma.
during noncyclic photophosphorylation, ______are formed. during cyclic photophosphorylation, ____is produced
1) ATP and NADPH
2) just ATP
cyclic photophosphorylation
carried out by chloroplast to replenish the ATP levels.
-electrons travel from P680 to P700 ETC, to a primary electron acceptor, and then back to P680
calvin cycle
the main business of the light independent reactions
the process that occurs during the calvin cycle is____
carbon fixation
steps of Calvin cycle
1) CO2 enters Calvin cycle and becomes attached to 5-carbon sugar RuBP
2) this forms a 6 carbon sugar
3) 6 carbon sugar is unstable so it breaks down into two 3-carbon molecules of 3-PGA
4) enzyme rubisco catalyzes this step
5) calvin cycle depends on ATP and NADPH and NOT LIGHT
6) it OCCURS only in the light
C4 steps
1) CO2 enters the mesophyll cell of the leaf and combines with a 3-carbon molecule, PEP to form the 4-carbon molecule oxaloacetate
2) enzyme, PEP carboxylase, catalyzes this step
CAM plants
keep their stomates closed during the day and open at night