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38 Cards in this Set

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Articulation Disorder
Phonetic errors, probs in sounds prod,motor in nature, doesn't impact other areas of lang.
Phonological Disorder
Phonemic errors, prob. in lang. spec. funct. of phonemes, diff w/ phoneme funct., impair in oragnization of phoneme system, impacts other areas of lang.
Probs w/ distinction bt artic and phono
not possible to differentiate a phonemic error from a phonetic error.
-phonological processes is descriptive-doesn’t provide info about why-it is assumed that it’s an error.
- younger it is termed a phonological error, older phonetic- doesn’t take into account development.
Phonological processes
systematic speech sound error pattern
Phonological processing
use of phonological codes to encode, store, and retrieve information.
Assumptions and goals oral motor
Speech development and proficiency require strength, speed, accuracy, awareness of oral movements, and the production of individual sound segments.
Why oral motor controversy
No evidence to support that strength, speed, accuracy, and awareness of oral movements elicits speech.
Multiple sound approach
•Characterized by horizontal goal attack strategy, multiple sounds targeted simultaneously
•Developed for use with clients with severe phonological disorders
•Views articulation errors from a motor perspective
Addental /s/
Tongue tips is too close to the incisors-causes /s/ to sound dull/flat
Learn for lateral /s/
-raise lateral edges of the tongue
-direct airstream over the tip of the tongue
facilitating for /s/
/i/ /I/ /e/ /E/
Two questions for sh
faulty tongue?
lack of lip rounding?
faulty tongue sh
Choose high front vowels such as /i/ /I/ then /e/ /E/
lack of lip rounding
Choose high back vowels like /u/ then /o/
Minimal pair
single feature and stimulability for children with substitutions
Maximal contrast
contrastive sounds maximally distinct along features for children with moderate to severe
Multiple opposition
-maximal distinction-different from the child's error.
-maximal class-different in features
-Sound that have greatest impact.

Severe-->profound
phonological process therapy does not exist
Phonological process is used for assessment not for treatment
Advantages of cycles
Cycles does not require mastery of a single sound before moving to another sound. It is a broad based approach. Cycles training combines elements of traditional speech therapy (motor placement) with a perceptual component, an efficient goal attack strategy (cycling), and phonological assessment.
7 components of Hodson’s treatment approach
1.Brief review of prior session’s target
2.Amplified auditory stimulation
3.Production-practice stimuli
4.Production practice
5.Select next session’s target
6.Amplified auditory stimulation (repeated)
7.Phonemic Awareness
Hodson not phonological
Uses traditional motor approach
treatment approach phonological
Minimal pairs and maximal contrast-must contain a phonemic contrast.
effectiveness of different speech therapy
All approaches are equally effective
choosing a treatment approach
 Theoretical orientation
 Treatment efficiency
 Service delivery considerations
 Client factors
 Clinician factors
three components of EBP
• Evidence-based practice
• Clinical expertise
• Client’s values, needs,preferences
Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
Location and time is specific to individual child. What is appropriate and what is least restrictive.
Traditional motor approach
discrimination training followed by production of the sound in isolation, nonsense syllables, words, structured phrases, sentences, and spontaneous speech. This approach uses a vertical goal attack strategy in which high criterion levels (e.g., 85%
differential diagnosis of DAS
-No behavior or symptom defines CAS, so one can never really
CAS
(a) inconsistent errors on consonants and vowels in repeated productions of syllables or words, (b) lengthened and disrupted coarticulatory transitions between sounds and syllables, and (c) inappropriate prosody, especially in the realization of lexical or phrasal stress.
Benefits Stand. Course of Study
State has universal guidelines as to what is taught in what grade, so schools can be on the same page.
three challenges stuttering
• Parental investment
• Teacher involvement
• Caseload grouping
Pros RTI
-better id and decrease disproportion
-early intervention
-implements EBP program
-measures progress freq.
Cons RTI
-takes a long time to get thr.
-logistics of collab.
-higher work load
-need to retrain and reorgan
Discrep model pro
-no tiers
-more universal
-quantify measures
-LD and ID treated differ.
Discrep model cons
-wait to fail
-longer process for referral
-disproportion id
-limited direct contact w/ profes.
Why variety of assess
-deter what child can and can't do in all set.
-standard test may qualify
-reveals child's skill and weak in everyday-plan funct. goals
Variability in stutter
capacity and demands in given situations-ie therapy, home, peers-may manifest more core behaviors in certain situations
Other factors in stutter
affect response, avoidance, secondary characteristics, emotions.