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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ɯ • u
ɤ , o
ʌ • ɔ
ɑ • ɒ
vowels- back, high closed,
vowels- closed mid back
vowels- open mid back
vowels- open low back
phonetics
an experimental science studying sound from production, acoustics and perception
phonology
tests phonetic data, goal is to understand the tacit system of rules that a speaker uses in apprehending and manipulating the sounds of a language
production

acoustics
how sounds are made in the vocal tract

study of sound wave forms by which speech is transmitted
perception
how the acoustic signal is processed to detect the sequence intended by the speaker
vocal tract
all portions of human anatomy through which air flows in the course of speech production, includes larynx, lungs, pharynx, oral and nasal cavity
layrnx
a complex structure of muscle and cartilage located in the neck, contains vocal cords
vocal cords

glottis
parallel flaps of tissue extending from each side of the interior larynx wall

slits between the vocal cords
arytenoid cartilage

glottal stop
two small cartilages that are held at the rear ends of the vocal cords

when the vocal cords are held together, this is the sounds made
voicing

thyroid cartilage
when vocal cords vibrate

where both of the ends of the vocal cords attach, can stretch and slacken cords and raise or lower voice pitch
velar port
an opening about halfway from the larynx to the lips
alveolar ridge
a bony ridge behind the upper lips
hard palate
the part of the mouth underlain by bone
velum/soft plate
the flap of soft tissue separating the mouth from nasal passages
uvula
dangly thing from rear end of velum.
tongue
has three parts: tip/apex and blade as well as body or dorsum. Rear part is the root
Epiglottis
flap behind the tongue root
vowels
highly sonorous sounds made with an open vocal tract
consonants
constricted sounds which are quieter
stop
when airflow is closed off
fricative
when there is a tight construction and hissing noise
sibilant
a stream of air directed at the upper teeth creating a noise which is turbulent
in English includes [s], [z] and [ʃ ]
Affricate
a stop followed by a fricative

in English it includes [tʃ ] and [dʒ]
Nasal
when the velum is lowered and air escapes through the nose
tap/flap
when an articulator makes a rapid brush against some articulatory surface [r]
trill
when an articulator is made to vibrate by placing it near an articulatory surface and letting air flow through the gap
approximate
consonants where construction is wide so it passes air w/out creating turbulence
lateral approximate
when air passes around the sides of the tongue [l]
liquids
sounds with a characteristic acoustic quality
glides/semi vowel
include the sounds [j] and [w]
central approximate
when air flows through a gap in the center of the tongue
bilabial
made by touching upper and lower lips together
labiodental
made by touching lower lip to upper teeth
dental
made by touching tongue to upper teeth
alveolar
made by touching tip or blade of tongue to a location forward of the alveolar ridge
palato alveolar
sounds made by touching the blade of the tongue to a location just behind the alveolar ridge
retroflex
sounds made by curling the tongue tip backwards and touching the area behind the alveolar ridge
palatal
sounds made by touching part of the tongue blade to the forward part of the tongue and hard plate
velar
sounds made by touching the body of the tongue to the hard or soft palate
uvular
sounds made by moving the tongue body straight back to touch the uvula and neighboring portions of the soft plate
pharyngeal
sounds made by moving tongue body down and back into the pharynx
glottal
sounds made by moving vocal cards close to one another
voiceless bilabial stop
voiced bilabial stop
voiceless retroflex stop
voiced retroflex stop
[p]
[b]
[ʈ ]
[ɖ]
voiceless palatal stop
voiced palatal stop
voiceless velar stop
voiced velar stop
[c]
[ɟ]
[k]
[g]
voiceless uvular stop
voiced uvular stop
voiceless glottal stop
voiceless epiglottal stop
[q]
[ɢ]
[ʔ]
[ʡ]
bilabial nasal
labiodental nasal
alveolar nasal
retroflexed nasal
[m]
[ɱ]
[n]
[ɳ]
palatal nasal
velar nasal
uvular nasal
bilabial trill
[ɲ]
[ŋ]
[ɴ]
[ʙ]
alveolar trill
uvular trill
labiodental tap
alveolar tap
[r]
[ʀ]
[ѵ†]
[ɾ]
retroflexed tap
voiceless bilabial fricative
voiced bilabial fricative
voiceless labiodental fricative
[ ɽ ]
[ɸ]
[β]
[f]
voiced labiodental fricative
voiceless dental fricative
voiced dental fricative
voiceless alveolar fricative
[v]
[θ]
[ð]
[s ]
voiced alveolar fricative
voiceless post alveolar fricative
voiced post alveolar fricative
voiceless retroflexed fricative
[z]
[ʃ ]
[ʒ]
[ʂ]
voiced retroflexed fricative
voiceless palatal fricative
voiced palatal fricative
voiceless velar fricative
[ʐ]
[ç]
[ʝ]
[x]
voiced velar fricative
voiceless uvular fricative
voiced uvular fricative
voiceless uvular pharyngeal
[ɣ]
[χ]
[ħ]
[ʜ]
voiceless alveolar lateral
voiced alveolar lateral
voiced labiodental central approximate
voiced alveolar central approximate
[ɬ ]
[ɮ]
[ʋ]
[ɹ]
voiced retroflex approximate
palatal approximate
velar voiced central approximate
lateral alveolar approximate
[ɻ]
[j]
[ɰ]
[l]
glide
non syllabic equivalents of vowels (semi-vowels)
dipthong
a sequence of two vowels that functions as a single sound
syllabic consonants
sounds that are normally consonants which are prolonged slightly and serve as a nucleus of a syllable.
tone
using different pitch to distinguish words
intonation
using voice for purposes other than distinguishing words
rounding
narrows the passage of air to the exit
height
makes passage of air wider or narrower
higher vowels are more narrow
backness
when part of the body of the tongue is placed towards the back of the mouth
front closed vowels
closed mid vowels
open mid vowels
dipthongs
[i] and [y]
[e] and [ø]
ɛ • œ
a • ɶ
central high vowels
upper mid central vowels
open mid central vowels
lower mid central vowels
ɨ • ʉ
ɘ • ɵ
ɜ • ɞ
ɐ
back closed vowels
back closed mid vowels
open mid back vowels
open back low vowels
ɯ • u
ɤ • o
ʌ • ɔ
ɑ • ɒ