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38 Cards in this Set

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Define Assimilation
rule that cause a sound (or gesture) to become more like a neighboring sounds (or gesture) with respect to some phonetic property
Give term.
List types of assimilation rules
Alveolar stop assimilation
Palatalization
Vowel Haromy
Define Alveolar Stop Assimilation
(English) Alveolar stops assimilate to the place of articulation of a following consonant.

ex
"can ask" /kæn beIk/ => [kæm beIk]
Give examples of Alveolar Stop Assimiliation
"can ask" /kæn beɪk/ => [kæm beɪk]

This is an example of what rule?
Define Palatalization
refers to a special type of assimilation in which a consonant becomes like a neighboring palatal.

Commonly occur with alveolar, dental and velar stops or fricatives appear before a front vowe
Example of Palatalization
"Did you" /dɪd ju/ => [dɪʤu]
List common examples of palatalization
occur with alveolar, dental and velar stops or fricatives appear before a front vowel.

[t] > [ʧ]
[d] > [ʤ]
[s] > [ʃ]
[k] > [ʧ]
[g] > [ʤ]
Define Vowel Harmony
A relatively common long-distance assimilation
Give examples of Vowel Harmony
(Finnish) A back vowel becomes front when preceded by a front vowel in the same word.
For example, the suffix meaning "in" has the form [-ssa] but becomes [-ssæ] when it attaches to a word with a final front vowel, like [metsæ] ("forest") > [mtsæssæ]
Define Dissimilation
A phonological rule that causes two close or adjacent sounds to ebcome less alike with respect to some property, by means of a change in one or both sounds.
Give an example of Dissimilation Rule
Manner Dissimilation is a type of Dissimilation
(Greek)
A stop becomes a fricative when followed by another stop.

the form /etpa/ ("seven") can be pronounced in fast speech as [efta].

/ktisma/ ("building") can be pronounced as [xtizma] ([x] is a voiceless velar fricative).
Define Insertion
A phonological rule that causes a segment not present at the phonemic level to be added to the phonetic form of a word.
Give an example of the Insertion Rule
(English)
Voiceless Stop Insertion
Between a nasal consonant and a voiceless fricative, a voiceless top with the same place of articulation as the nasal is inserted.

"dance" /dæns/ --> [dænts]
"strength" /strɛŋɵ/ --> [strrɛkɵ]
"hamster' /hæ mstr/ --> [hæmpstr\

ŋ ʤ æ ʧ ʍ ʖ ɸ ʃ ɛ ɵ
What is the Voiceless Stop Insertion rule?
an exmaple of an Insertion rule:

(English)
Voiceless Stop Insertion
Between a nasal consonant and a voiceless fricative, a voiceless top with the same place of articulation as the nasal is inserted.

"dance" /dæns/ --> [dænts]
"strength" /strɛŋɵ/ --> [strrɛkɵ]
"hamster' /hæ mstr/ --> [hæmpstr\

ŋ ʤ æ ʧ ʍ ʖ ɸ ʃ ɛ ɵ
Define Deletion
A phonological rule that eliminates a sound that was present at the phonemic level.
Applies more frequently to unstressed syllables
An example of the Deletion rule
(English)
/h/-Deletion
/h/ may be deleted in unstressed syllables

"He handed her his hat"
/hi hændəd hr hIz hæt/ -->
[hi hændəd r Iz hæt
What is /h/ Deletion
An example of the phonological rule of Deletion.

(English)
/h/ may be deleted in unstressed syllables

"He handed her his hat"
/hi hændəd hr hɪz hæt/ -->
[hi hændəd r ɪz hæt]
Define Metathesis
Phonological rule that changes the order of sounds--usually to make words easier to pronounce or understand.
Give an example of Metathesis
(Leti)
CV Metathesis

When three consecutive consonant occur, the first consonant trades places with the preceding vowel.

/danat + kviali/ "millipede" -->
[dantakvialia]

/ukar + ppalu/ "index finger" -->
[ukrappalu]

also possible in sign languages.
Another word for Strengthening
Fortition
Define Strengthening
A phonological rule that makes sounds stronger.
Give an Example rule of Strengthening
(English)
Aspiration
Voiceless stops become aspirated when they occur at the beginning of a stressed syllable.

"tap" /tæp/ --> [tHæp]
Aspirated sounds are considered to be stronger than non-aspirated sound because the duration of voicelessness is much longer
Define Weakening
A phonological rule, also called Lenition, that causes sounds to become weaker.
Another word for Weakening
Lenition
Give an example of Weakening
(English)
Flapping
An alveolar oral stop is realized as a flap [ ɾ ] when it occurs after a stressed vowel and before an unstressed vowel.
"writer" /raɪtr/ --> [raɪɾr]
the change of the /t/ to the flap [ɾ] is due to voicing assimilation: the /t/ takes on the voicedness of the vowels surrounding it.
Define Schwa Insertion
(English)
Insert a [ə] between two sibilants.

Ex. Plural marker.
Instead of pronouncing "foxes" as [faksz], we do [faksəz
Define sibilants
sounds that have a high-pitched hissing quality.
ʧ s ʃ ʒ dʒ z
Define Voicing Assimilation
(English)
/-z/ takes on the voicing specification of the preceding sound.

"cats" /kætZ/ --> [kæts] (z becomes like t)

"dogs" /dɔgz/ --> [dɔgZ] (no change--already the same)
Define Phonotactic Constraints
Restrictions on possible combinations of sounds in a language.
What English's phonotactic constraints?
V "a"
VC "at"
VCC "ask"
VCCC "asked"
CV "no"
CVC "not"
CVCC "ramp"
CVCCC "ramps"
CCV "flew"
CCVC "flute"
CCVCC "flutes"
CCVCCC "crafts"
CCCV "spree"
CCCVC "spleen"
CCCVCC "strength"
CCCVCCC "strengths"
Which three English consonants may begin a word,and what are the sub-restrictions?
3 consonants may begin a word, provided the first, is /s/,
the second /p/, /t/, or /k/
and the third /l/ , /r/, /j/ , /w/
What are the phonotactic Constraints for Hawaiian?
CV
V
It doesn't permit consonant clusters in any position.
What are the phonotactic Constraints for Indonesian?
CV
V
C
CVC
It has clusters only in the middle of words--there are no clusters initially or finally.
What are the phonotactic Constraints for Hebrew?
CV
CCV
CCVC
CVC
CVCC
Permits both initial and final clusters,m but it does not allow a single vowel to be a syllable by itself.
Define Sounds Substitution
a process whereby sounds that already exist in a language are used to replace sounds that do not exist in the language when borrowing or trying to pronounce a foreign word.

For instance, for "this" [ðIs] is pronounced by French speakers as [zIs] because they don't have a [ð] in their phonemic inventory.
Implicational Law
In phonology, the presences of the lass common sounds implies that the more common sound will also be used in the language.

For instance, the class of voiceless consonants is relatively more common than the class of voiced consonants. So if a language uses voiced stops, it will also make use of voiceless ones.
Define Minimal Pair
a pair of words differing in meaning, but are phonetically identical except for one sound in the same position in each word.

[lɛd] and [rɛd]
Define Near Minimal Pair
Similar to a minimal pair, but whereas the words in a minimal pair are identical apart from the contrast sounds, the words in a near -minimal pair are only ALMOST identical, apart from the contrastive sounds
"heard" [hrd] and "Bert" [Brt]. The [h] [b] make this near minimal--and we can't come up with a rule that only permits [h] or [d] at the beginning of the word and vice versa--ending in [t]