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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Becoming aware of language as an object that can be analyzed and manipulated is usually referred to as _____ ______
phonological awareness
Being able to hear each of the sounds as individual units is _____ ______
phonemic awareness
Knowledge of the relationships between letters and sounds and the ability to put together (or blend) sounds represented by letters is ______
phonics
Figuring out an unfamioliar word by looking at the words and sentences that follow it is called ______ ____
context use
Words that you recognize instantly without having to resort to phonics or context use are ______ ______
sight words
use of prefixes and suffixes to break a word apart for meaning and pronunciation is ______ ________
morphemic analysis
breaking words into smaller units to help determine meaning or pronunciation is ______ ________
chunking words
use of a dictionary when trying to analyze a word is to use ______ ________
dictionary skills
analyzing a child's ______ ________ __________ helps you reveal important diagnostic information about children's reading and writing
developmental spelling patterns
1. One element of reading instruction about which teachers should be familiar is word _______. Readers use word analysis to analyze written words and to construct both their sounsd and their ________
analysis

meanings
2.Printed letters, words and sentences are language symbols from which a reader seeks to derive ______. Words analysis refers to those strategies a reader uses when unfamiliar words are encountered in written ________. Both sound and meaning are ________ by the symbols in our written language.
meaning

language

represented
3.Readers construct meaning from written language. Although emergent readers are already familiar with the spoken form of their language, most of them are unfamiliar with the _______ form of language.
written
4.Meaning is the most important consideration in reading. Word ________ is a tool that can help readers to obtain ________ from reading.
analysis

meaning
5.Many word ________ strategies are referred to as decoding skills. A reader must be able to use the information of the ________ language code in order to decode words.
analysis

written
6.Phonics is only one of many important word ________ strategies. Other elements of word analysis, such as phonological awareness and phonemic awareness, are skills that develop earlier. These enable readers to use word analysis ________.
analysis

strategies
7.In reconstructing a message from written ________, a reader uses at least three types of cueing systems. These interrated cueing systems are graphophonics, semantics and syntax.
language
8.Grapho-________ information describes the relationship b/t soundss in our ________ and the written letters or spelling patterns.
phonic

language
9.Semantic information refers to the meaning elements of language. The vocabulary and conceptual backgrounds of a reader influence his or her ability to use ________ information.
semantic
10.Syntax refers to the sentence patterns and structure, or grammar, of ________. These structures, or ________ cues, are used by readers in constructing meaning from print.
language

syntactic
11.Readers use all three types of cueing systems simultaneously during the reading ________.
process
12.Lingustics is the scientific study of language. Certain information from the scientific study of language, or __________, is applicable to reading instruction.
linguistics
13.Phonology and phonetics, which are concerned with the study of speech sounds, are part of ________ study. Phonetics is a branch of linguistic study that deals with speech sounds and their productions. Phonics refers to the application of information about the sounds of ________ to the teaching of reading. The term phonics refers to the knowledge about how ________ are represented by letters or letter combinations in written language.
Relationships between letters and sounds are sufficiently predictable to make ________ a word analysis strategy that is useful when combined with other strategies.
linguistic

language

sounds

phonics
14.Teachers help children by teaching ________, not phonetics.
phonics
15.The term used to refer to the writing system of a language is ________. Words are not always spelled the way they sounds b/c of morphological and syntactic considerations.
orthography
16.A phoneme is the smallest single unit of sound in a language that distinguishes one morpheme (meaning unit) from another. For example, when the words bit and sit are spoken, only the first phoneme (of 3) is different. The spoken word at has two ________, whereas the soken word cat has ________.
phonemes

three
17. A grapheme is a written or printed representation of a phoneme; for example the letters th, i and s in the word this. Note that a single grapheme may include several letters when these represent a single sound. When you see the word at, you see two graphemes: ________ and ________. In the written word path you see three ________: p, a, and th.
a and t

graphemes
18. The written word chat has four letters. it also has ________ graphemes and ________ phonemes. Two of the letters appear in a single grapheme, ch. This grapheme represents ________ sound.
three

three

one
19. In reading, children are expected to learn letter-sound relationships or, as they are frequently referred to as grapheme- phoneme ________.
relationships
20. Before they learn grapheme-phoneme relationships, however, most children come to a conscious awareness of words and syllabic units as discrete units. This is often referred to as ________ awareness.
phonological
21. ________ awareness is the general term used to label this conscious awareness about the sounds of language. Phonological ________ is an important milestone for young children since it indicates that they are consciously aware of the sounds of language and can analyze and manipulate these sounds in different ways.
phonological

awareness
22. If children can identify individual words in oral language, clap the syllables in a word, or know how to rhyme one word with another, we can be confident that they have developed ________ awareness.
phonological
23. A special aspect of phonological awareness is the development of phonemic awareness. ________ awareness is demostrated when a child can analyze and manipulate individual phonemes, or sounds, in oral language. Being able to identify the two sounds, or phonemes, in a spoken word like at would demonstrate that a child has phonemic ________.
phonemic

awareness
24.phonemic awareness is important for children to develop because it enables them to benfit from ________ instruction.
phonics
25.being able to determine the graphophonemic relationships in a word does not, by itself, always enable a reader to comprehend what he or she ________. However, graphophonemic cues can be combined with other language information to result in meaningful ________.
reads

reading
26. A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning in a language. The word bookmark has ________ morphemes.
two
27. morphemic analysis refers to the use of meaningful parts of ________, such as prefixes, suffixes, contractions, compound forms, and base words, to analyze words. Structural analysis is a term often used in texts on how to teach reading to refer to what is called morphemic analysis here. In addition, structural ________ includes the study of syllabic units in words and spelling patterns influenced by the addition of affixes.
words

analysis
28. morphemic ________ is concerned with how meaning is determined by the combination of morphemes, the smallest units of meaning in a language.
analysis
29.The word box contains one unit of meaning, or morpheme. In the word boxes, there are ________ morphemes: box and es. Box is calle a free ________ since it can stand alone and another unit does not have to be added for it to have meaning.
The es plural is an example of a bound morpheme. They only function when combined with a ________ morpheme.
two

morpheme

free
30.Morphemic analysis is an important aspect of word analysis. Use of morphemic analysis is limited, however, to words that contain identifiable morphemes, including ________, ________, and root words.
prefixes

suffixes
31. The spelling system of english is based on more than the correspondence between ________ and sounds.
Linguists use the term morphophonemic to refer to the combined meaning and ________ base of the english spelling system.
letters

sound
32. Readers often use context clues during ________ analysis. Context clues require readers to rely upon the other words and the sentence patterning, or ________, in a reading selection along with meaning cues in the material.
word

syntax
33. ________ clues provide helpful information for determining word ________. context clues are also helpful in determining pronunciation for readers who have heard a word in oral language but have never seen the printed form.
context

meaning
34. Efficient readers combine all ________ ________ technigues to figure out the pronunciation and ________ of unfamiliar words
word analysis

meaning
35. The ultimate aim of instruction in word analysis is to help students become more efficient readers. Efficient readers focus on meaning and recognize words instantly. The words that readers ________ instantly comprise their sight ________ knowledge. One factor contributing to the development of extensive ________ word knowledge is a command of word analysis ________. Extensive ________ word knowledge also contributes to efficient reading.
recognize
word
sight
strategies
sight
36. in this book we focus mostly on the ________-phonic cueing system. However, we do not mean to imply this is more important than the other categories. This will vary according to individual sutdent ________. An insightful teacher will be able to determine the strategies each child needs to develop.
grapho

needs
37. Phonological awareness, phonemic awareness, phonics, context clues, sight words, structural and morphemic analyses, and use of the dictionary are word ________ strategies discussed in this text. For children, this knowledge is acquired over a period of years. For you, this information is condensed into a brief interactive tutorial to save you time.
Analysis