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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Affricate
A stop followed by a homorganic fricative
Allophone
A variant of a phoneme
Alternations
Variations in words that can be described in terms of phonological rules
Alveolar
"An articulation involving the tip or blade of the tongue and the alveolar ridge, such as d in English die"
Anticipatory coarticulation
An action in which one of the speech organs that is not involved in making a particular sound moves toward its position for a subsequent sound
Apical
An articulation involving the tip of the tongue
Approximant
"An articulation in which one articulator is close to another but without the tract being narrowed to such an extent that a turbulent airstream is produced j,l,r,w are approximants"
Articulation
The approach or contact of two speech organs
Aspiration
"A period of voicelessness after the release of an articulation, as in English pie"
Assimilation
The change of one sound into another sound because of the influence of neighboring sounds
Back vowels
"Vowels in which the body of the tongue is in the back part of the oral cavity. The vowels u,o, (backward c), a form a set of back reference vowels."
bilabial
an articulation involving both lips
breathy voice
another name for murmur
click
a stop made with an ingressive velaric airstream
closed syllable
a syllable with a consonant at the end
coarticulation
the overlapping of adjacent articulations
coda
the consonants occurring after the vowel in a syllable
coronal
a term for sounds articulated with the tip or blade of the tongue raised toward the teeth or the alveolar ridge such as [s, t]
creaky voice
another term for laryngealization
diphthong
a vowel in which there is a change in quality during a single syllable, as in English [aI] in high
dorsal
describing sounds articulated with the back of the tongue
downdrift
the tendency for the pitch to fall throughout an intonational phrase
ejective
a stop made with an egressive glottalic airstream
epenthesis
the insertion of one or more sounds in the middle of a word
flap
an articulation in which one articulator, usually the tongue tip, is drawn back and then allowed to strike against another articulator in returning to its rest position
formant
a group of overtones corresponding to a resonating frequency of air in the vocal tract
fricative
narrowing of the distance between two articulators so that the airstream is partially obstructed and a turbulent airflow is produced, as in English [z] in zoo
front vowels
i, e, ɛ, a form a set of front vowels
geminate
adjacent segments that are the same
glottal
an articulation involving the glottis as [ ʔ ] in button
glottalic airstream mechanism
movement of pharynx air by the action of the glottis. Ejectives and Implosives are formed this way
glottis
the space between the vocal folds
homorganic
made in the same place of articulation, d and n in hand are homorganic
implosive
a stop made with an ingressive glottalic airstream
interdental
articulated with the tongue between the upper and lower teeth
labial
involving one or both lips: [f, v, m[
laryngeal
the region of the vocal tract at the glottis where consonantal articulations such as [h, ʔ ] are made
lateral
an articulation in which the airstream flows over the sides of the tongue as in English [l]
lax
lax vowels in English can occur in monosyllables closed by ng, such as sing, length, hang, long, hung.
liquid
l and various r sounds
murmur
another name for breathy voice
nasal
a sound in which the soft palate is lowered so that there is no velic closure and air may go out through the nose, as in English [m]
nasalization
lowering of the soft palate during a sound in which air is going out of the mouth (often anticipatory)
nucleus
the center of a syllable, usually just the vowel
obstruent
a fricative, stop, or affricate
onset
the consonants occurring before the vowel in a syllable
open syllable
a syllable without a consonant at the end
oral stop
complete stoppage of both the nasal and oral cavities, as in [b, d, g]
palatal
an articulation involving the front of the tongue and the hard palate
phoneme
one of a set of abstract units that can be used for writing a language down in a systematic and unambiguous way
plosive
a stop made with a pulmonic airstream mechanism, such as in English p or b
rhotacization
r-coloring, resulting from the lowering of the third formant
stop
complete closure of two articulators
stress
the use of extra respiratory energy during a syllable
tap
a rapid movement of the tip of the tongue upward to contact the roof of the mouth
tense
tense vowels in English are those which can occur in stressed open syllables
tone
a pitch that conveys part of the meaning in a word
uvular
an articulation involving the back of the tongue and the uvula as the r in French rouge
velar
an articulation involving the back of the tongue and the velum as in English g in guy
velaric airstream mechanism
movement of mouth air by action of the tongue (clicks are produced this way)
velum
the soft movable part of the palate at the back of the mouth
vocoid
a sound with no obstruction at the center of the mouth. Vowels and semi-vowels are vocoids
voice bar
a dark area near the baseline in a spectrogram, indicating voicing during a consonant
voiced
having vibrations of the vocal folds during an articulation
voiceless
pronounced without vibrations of the vocal folds
voice onset time
the moment at which the voicing starts relative to the release of a closure