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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Language
a rule governed symbolic communication system
Levels language can be analyzed at
Syntax (sentences)
Morphology (words)
Phonology (sounds)
Phonetics
the study of speech sounds
Articulatory Phonetics
how sounds are produced
Acoustic Phonetics
acoustic properties of speech sounds
Clinical Phonetics
analysis of disordered speech sounds
Linguistic Phonetics
different languages can be transcribed with the same system. Peter Ladefoged
Reduction
when speech sounds aren't clearly articulated
Orthography
Written symbols used to represent a language. Graphemes.
Graphemes
minimal written units, English uses alphabetic symbols
Shallow Orthography
Close corresspondence between orthography and pronunciation. Example is the spanish language
Deep Orthography
Unclear/inconsistent corresspondence between orthography and prounciation. Example is the English language
Number of speech sounds or phonemes in english language
about 40
IPA
Created by linguists for purpose of speech transcription.

Representation of sounds by symbols and has a 1:1 corresspondence between symbols and sounds
Morpheme
smallest meaningful unit of language. May or may not be a whole word`
Free Morpheme
can stand alone as a word
Bound morpheme
cannot stand alone as a word
Phoneme
the smallest unit that can change the meaning of a word
Phonemic Segmentation
What are the individual phonemes in a word?
Minimal Pairs/ Minimal set/ Minimal contrast
different words formed by substituting one and only one phoneme for another
Allophone
variant forms of a phoneme that do not change the meaning of a word
Notations of Allophones
Square brackets ( matrix)
Binary distinctions
Phonology
study of the sound system of a language
Broad Transcription
basic sounds, phonemic transcription /phonemes/
Narrow Transcription
More detailed description of sounds, phonetic transcription [allophones]
Articulatory pHonetics
description of how sounds are produced
Anatomical structures involved in speech prodution
Located in abdomen, chest, neck, and head
Structures of the Respiratory System
Nasal/Oral cavity
pharynx
larynx
trachea
lungs
Respiration
gas exchange between an organism and its environment
Inspiration/ Inhalation
taking air into the lungs through respiratory path. Ingressive airflow
Expiration/ Exhalation
releasing air from the lungs. Egressive air flow
Structures of the phonatory (laryngeal) system
Larynx
set of cartiledges and associated muscles
Vocal Folds
Phonation
Voicing resulted from vocal fold vibration and does not occur for voiceless sounds
Vocal Folds
pair of muscles attached at the front and open toward the back of the body
Glottis
space between the vocal folds
The rate of vibration is realted to
the pitch of the voice
Fundamental Frequency
the rate at which vocal folds vibrate
Structures involved in the Articulatory System
Vocal Tract (pharynx, oral cavity, nasal cavity)

mobile and immobile articulators
Articulation
approach or contact of two speech organs
Mobile Articulators
Lips
Tongue
Mandible
Velum
Uvula
Immobile Articulators
Teeth
Alveolar Ridge
Hard Palate
Lips
Can be opened closed protruded or retracted.
Sounds associated with the lips
Labial
Bilabial
Labiodental
Tongue
The primary articulator supported by the mandible
Mandible
AKA tempro-mandibular joint (TMJ) the connection between temporal bone and the mandible
Velum
AKA the soft palate. Associated sounds are known as velar
Uvula
Soft, Fleshy structure that hangs at the posterior tip of the tongue
Alveolar Ridge
bony ridge behind the upper teeth
Hard Palate
bony roof of the mouth behind the alveolar ridge. Seperates the oral and nasal cavitites
Velopharyngeal Port
Open for nasal sounds and closed for oral sounds
Shape and size of vocal tract are changed by
1. raising or lowering the jaw
2. arching the tongue to various degrees
3. rounding or spreading the lips
Vowels are classified by:
Tongue height
Tongue advancement
Lip Rounding
Vowels
speech sounds formed without significant constriction in the vocal tract
Point Vowels
Vowels at the extrema on the quadrilateral
High Vowels
Vowels with the tongue close to the palate
Low Vowels
Vowels with the tongue depressed in the mouth
Tongue Advancement
Refers to tongue placement along front/back dimensions
Rhotacized
sounds that carry /r/ quality
Lip Rounding
State of the lips during vowel production.
Monophthongs
vowels that have an unchanging quality throughout
Diphthongs
Articulation changes over time A combination of two vowels
Onglide
the initial vowel
offglide
the final vowel
AE Phonemic Diphthongs
monophthong cannot be substituted because the substitution changes the meaning
AE Non-Phonemic Diphthongs
Monophthong can be substituted without changing the word meaning
Tenseness
Refers to the degree of muscle activity involved, the length or duration of the vowel, and phonological patterning
Tense
greater degree of muscle activity. Can occur in open and closed syllables
Lax
Lesser degree of muscle activity and a shorter duration.
Vowel Modification
Monophthongization
Diphthongization
Reduction
Nasalization
Rhotacization
Derhotacization
Consonants
Speech sounds in which airflow is stopped or restricted
Consonants are described based on..
Place
Voicing
Manner
Manner of Articulation
the type of constriction
Stops
produced with complete closure of the vocal tract. Airflow is stopped, pressure is built up behind the closure, then air is released
Stop Bursts
Audible release in a stop sound
Aspiration
No audible release burst in a stop
Flap
Modified/reduced version of a stop caused by rapid flapping motion of the tongue
Glottal Stop
Vocal folds are pressed together
Fricatives
Produced with constriction through which air escapes with a continuos noise.
Obstruents
Stops and fricatives are examples since it involves airstream obstruction
Affricates
Combination of stop closure plus a friction noise. Only occur in the palatal region in AE
Nasals
airflow passes primarily through the nasal cavity since the oral cavity is usually obstructed
Approximants
Constriction in the oral cavity and may be sustained