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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Vocal ligament attachments
from vocal process to inner front wall of thyroid cartilage.
Muscular process holds
lateral portion of vocal folds
and lateral and posterior
cricoarytenoid muscles
Ventricular ligament attaches to
inner surface
of thyroid cartilages
Name ligaments attaching to arytenoid cartilages
vocal ligament, ventricular ligament
Epigolottis, hard to remember facts
Attaches to inner
front surface of thyroid cartilage just beneath the thyroid notch and influences resonance
Hyoid parts
corpus, greater horns, lesser horns
Facts about the hyoid bone
Attaches to 9 pairs of muscles
• Relates it to tongue, pharynx,
temporal bone, mandible, scapula,
larynx, sternum.
• It is very mobile.
• Does not connect to any other bone
in body.
• Forms a base for the tongue.
What kind of motions does the cricoarytenoid joint capable of?
Saddle joint which permits rocking motion and limited
amount of gliding motion.
What shape is cricoarytenoid jont?
Convex
What shape is arytenoid articular facet?
Concave
Tell what you know about Posterior Cricoarytenoid Ligament
• Extends from posterior surface of the cricoid lamina to
the base of the posterior surface of the arytenoid.
• Restricts the extent of forward movement.
Tell what you know about Anterior Cricoarytenoid Ligament
• Attaches at anterior base.
• Often absent.
• May limit backward movement of larynx.
Talk about cricothyroid joint
• Articular facets on cricoid cartilage may be almost flat,
concave, or convex.
• Articular facts on medial surface of inferior thyroid horns
(cornu) usually lined with synovial membrane.
• Joined together and enclosed by posterior, lateral and
anterior ceratocricoid ligaments.
• Allows limited rotation.
Name the three valves
epiglottis
ventricular folds
vocal folds
The three types of muscles in larynx are?
tensor, adductor and abductor
List facts about intrisic muscles
Regulate valvular action of laryngeal cavities.
• They are tensor, adductor and abductor muscles.
• Situated on or within cartilaginous skeleton.
• Form walls inside and partially outside larynx.
Tell about CRICOTHYROID MUSCLE
2 sections: vertical and oblique.
• Pull cricoid backward and upward and thyroid downward.
• Increase length of vocal folds.
• Innervated by 10th cranial nerve. Insult to nerve supply
to one of the two muscles--oblique portion won’t pull
cricoid posteriorly.
• Unilateral vocal fold paralysis.
Tell about THYROARYTENOID MUSCLE
Runs parallel to glottis.
• Primary mass of vocal folds.
• Made up of 2 parts: Ventricularis (external thyroarytenoid)
Vocalis (internal thyroarytenoid
Name the tensor muscles
cricothyroid muscle, thyroarytenoid muscle, volcalis, ventricularis, thyroepiglottic muscle
List facts about ventricularis.
• A larger segment of thryoarytenoid muscle consisting of muscle
fibers within ventricular fold (wall of laryngeal ventricle).
• Origin--lateral border of arytenoid cartilage
• Insertion--lateral margin of epiglottis
• Action--affects ventricular folds
Vocalis and ventricularis are what kind of muscles?
Thyroarytenoid muscles.
Tell facts about vocalis
• Portion where internal central fibers run alongside vocal
ligament.
• Origin--vocal processes
• Insertion--medial inside border of thyroid cartilage (called macula
flava anterior)
• There is a five layer structure of the vocal fold.
What are five layers of vocal fold?
• Epithelium--mucosa and squamous epithelial tissue
• Lamina propria--superficial layer (extracellular gelatin matrix)
intermediate layer (elastin)
deep layer (collagen fibers)
• Vocalis muscle
What are three sections of vocal fold?
• Cover--Epithelium and superficial layer of lamina propria
• Transition--intermediate and deep layers of lamina propria
• Body--Vocalis muscle
Tell facts about thyroepligottis muscles
Muscle fibers run from thyroid cartilage upward invertical
direction and ending in aryepiglottic fold
• Serve as sphincter muscles of aditus
• Involved in closing entrance of larynx in swallowing
• Attach to deep surfaces of lamina of thyroid cartilage above
attachment of thyroarytenoid muscle
• Attach to epiglottis--widens inlet into larynx
Name the adductor muscles
lateral cricoarytenoid muscle, transverse arytenoid muscle, oblique arytenoid muscle
Tell the differences between the two arytenoid muscles, oblique and transverse
Oblique is X chap from the apex of one arytenoid to the base of the other. Transverse is horizontal around both arytenoids.
Which muscle is the abductor muscles
posterior cricoarytenoid muscle.
Tell facts about LATERAL CRICOARYTENOID MUSCLE
• Arise from lateral borders of cricoid cartilage and insert into
muscular processes at outside corners of each arytenoid
cartilage.
• They adduct the arytenoids and also squeeze the anterior tips of
the vocal processes tightly together.
Tell facts about TRANSVERSE ARYTENOID MUSCLE
• Arise from lateral borders of cricoid cartilage and insert into
muscular processes at outside corners of each arytenoid
cartilage.
• They adduct the arytenoids and also squeeze the anterior tips of
the vocal processes tightly together.
Tell facts about OBLIQUE ARYTENOID MUSCLE
• Extend from the muscular process of one arytenoid to the apex
of the other.
• Action is to pull the upper tips of the arytenoids together.
Tel facts about POSTERIOR CRICOARYTENOID MUSCLE
• Arise from the back wall of cricoid cartilage.
• Insert into muscular processes of the arytenoid cartilages.
• They are the major muscles responsible for rocking and gliding
the arytenoids apart.
• They are the major muscles that abduct the vocal folds.
What are Extrinsic Laryngeal Membranes & Ligaments
Group of ligaments and membranes that
connect laryngeal cartilages to other structures.
Name extrinsic membranes and ligaments.
hyothyroid membrane and ligament,hyoepliglottic ligament, cricotracheal membrane,
Give some facts about hyothyroid membrane.
• Fills space between hyoid bone and superior border of thyroid
cartilage.
• Membrane thickens medially and is known as middle hyothyroid
ligament.
• Membrane also thickens at lateral borders between superior
horns of thyroid cartilage and hyoid bone and is know as lateral
hyothyroid ligaments.
• Triticial cartilage embedded in lateral hyothyroid ligament.
HYOEPIGLOTTIC LIGAMENT is
Unpaired, midline ligament extending from anterior surface of epiglottis.
CRICOTRACHEAL MEMBRANE
Connects lower border of cricoid cartilage with upper border of
first tracheal ring.
What are Intrinsic Laryngeal Membranes & Ligaments
• Interconnect various laryngeal cartilages and
help regulate direction and degree of their
movements.
• Made up of one sheet of connective tissue
(elastic membrane).
• Continuous sheet that lines the entire larynx
(except at vocal & ventricular ligaments).
• Lower portion called conus elasticus or
cricovocal membrane.
• Upper portion called quadrangular membrane.
Give facts about conus elasticus
• Connects thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoid cartilages with one
another.
• Divided into a medial (or anterior) cricothyroid ligament and two
lateral cricothyroid membranes.
Tell about CONUS ELASTICUS:
Medial Cricothyroid Ligament
• Band of yellow elastic tissue.
• Runs from midline of superior border of cricoid arch to inferior
border of thyroid cartilage.
Tell about CONUS ELASTICUS:
Lateral Cricothyroid Membranes
• Much thinner ligament at midline.
• Originate from superior border of cricoid cartilage and go to and
become the vocal ligaments.
• Run from vocal processes of arytenoids to angle of thyroid
cartilage.
• So, the conus elasticus extends from superior border of the arch
and lamina of cricoid cartilage to the upper limits of the vocal
folds (vocal ligament).
Facts about QUADRANGULAR MEMBRANE
• Paired.
• Arise from lateral margins of epiglottis and adjacent thyroid
cartilage near the angle.
• Attaches to the corniculate cartilages and medial surfaces of
arytenoids.
• Inferiorly the fibers thicken and become the ventricular ligament.
Facts about ARYEPIGLOTTIC FOLDS
• Form at the superior margins of quadrangular membranes.
• Together, these membranes and ligaments completely seal off
the spaces in the laryngeal structure and direct the airstream into
the aditus and upward into the resonatory passageways.
What are Mucous Membranes of the Larynx
• Laryngeal cavities are lined with mucous membrane from
trachea up.
• The cells are columnar in shape and have cilia which beat
towards the pharynx except at margins of vocal folds.
• The ciliated tissue is replaced by squamous epithelial
tissue at vocal folds.
• Vocal fold tissue is multi-layered and tightly bound.
• White because of lack of vascular supply.
• Ventricular folds are pink and plump.
• Made of thick folds of mucous membrane.
Tell me what the divisions of the laryngeal cavity are.
LARYNGEAL VESTIBULE, LARYNGEAL VENTRICLE, and INFERIOR LARYNGEAL VENTRICLE
Give facts about the LARYNGEAL VESTIBULE
• Area in larynx above ventricular folds.
• Opening called aditus.
• Anterior wall--epiglottis
• Lateral walls--aryepiglottic folds
• Posterior wall--upper parts of arytenoid cartilages
• Inferior limits--ventricular folds
Give facts about LARYNGEAL VENTRICLE
• Space between vocal folds and ventricular folds.
• Above: ventricular folds
• Below: vocal folds
• Lateral: inner wall of thyroarytenoid muscle
• Posterior: arytenoid
• Anterior: none
Give facts about INFERIOR LARYNGEAL VENTRICLE
• Portion below the true folds to the trachea.
• Lateral and posterior walls are cricoid cartilage.
• Anterior wall is cricothyroid ligament
Name the sphincters of the larynx.
ARYEPIGLOTTIC SPHINCTER, VENTRICULAR SPHINCTER, TRUE VOCAL FOLD SPHINCTER
Give facts about ARYEPIGLOTTIC SPHINCTER
• Muscle fibers embedded in aryepiglottic fold surrounding pear
shaped opening (aditus) into laryngeal cavity.
• First line of defense against foreign objects.
• Closes during swallowing and vomiting--preventing entry of food,
liquid or vomitus into respiratory tract.
• Opening is called upper sphincter of larynx.
Give facts about VENTRICULAR SPHINCTER
• Lies between laryngeal vestibule and ventricle.
• During normal phonation, ventricular folds remain in quiet, open
position.
• When the ventricular muscles contract, they meet at midline,
sealing or closing the sphincter.
• True vocal folds will always adduct first, however.
• Increases subglottic pressure by adding another “door” to keep
air in lungs and foreign objects out.
Give facts about TRUE VOCAL FOLD SPHINCTER
• Third door of closure.
• Not effective in preventing outflow of air during effort closure.
• Third line of defense in keeping foreign objects our of lungs.
• May close independently of other two sphincters.
• All three sphincters close during swallowing.
What are the two categories of the Extrinsic Muscles of the Larynx
elevators and depressors
What are the two categories of elevators?
PRINCIPLE
and SUPPLEMENTAL elevators.
Tell about Principal elevators
• 4 pairs
• Between skull and/or mandible--hyoid bone
• Raise hyoid bone which raises larynx
• Swallow and feel it
Name the principle elevators
digastricus, mylohyoideus, geniohyoideus, stylohyoideus
What are the supplemental elevators?
thyrohyoideus, hyoglossis, genioglossis
Tell facts about digastricus.
• Third door of closure.
• Not effective in preventing outflow of air during effort closure.
• Third line of defense in keeping foreign objects our of lungs.
• May close independently of other two sphincters.
• All three sphincters close during swallowing.
Tell about mylohyoideus.
• Makes up floor of oral cavity.
• Mylohyoid raphe is tendonous strip at midline.
• Connects the two muscles and supports tongue.
• Innervated by V nerve.
• Raises hyoid bone and tongue.
. A strip of tendon that runs at the midline beneath the oral cavity, the mandible. It connects to the hyoid bone.
Tell about geniohyoideus.
• Runs from inferior mental spine of mandible into upper 1/2 of
hyoid.
• Elevates.
• Pulls hyoid forward which pulls tongue forward
This muscle runs from the inferior mental spine of the mandible into the upper 1/2 of the hyoid bone.
Tell about stylohyoideus
• Located above and in front of posterior belly of digastric
muscle.
• Pulls hyoid up and rearward
This muscle is located above and in front of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle we talked about. When this muscle contracts, it pulls the hyoid bone up and rearward,
Tell about thyrohyoideus.
• Inserts into greater horn of hyoid bone.
• Shortens distance between larynx and hyoid.
Tell about hyoglossis.
• Regarded as muscle of the tongue.
• Runs from body and greater horn of hyoid up to tongue tip
and other tongue muscles.
• Aids in elevating larynx.
Tell about genioglossis.
• Forms most of muscular core of tongue.
• Possibly helps to elevate hyoid bone.
What are the Depressors?
• 3 muscles--all paired.
• Referred to as strap muscles of the neck.
Facts about STERNOTHYROIDEUS
• Assists in producing high and low pitches.
• Helps to make fine adjustments to vocal folds.
Facts about STERNOHYOIDEUS
• Same origin and course as sternothyroideus.
• Contracts to draw hyoid bone inferiorly which depresses
larynx.
Facts about OMOHYOIDEUS
• Pulls hyoid bone down upon contraction.
• Can also pull larynx backward.
• Begins at border of scapula.
• Passes behind sternocleidomastoid muscle, turns upward.
• Attaches to lower border of hyoid.
• All muscles work in conjunction with one another.
What is the suspensory system?
• Suspends the larynx in the throat.
• Major ligament of principle suspensory system
is STYLOHYOID LIGAMENT.
• It suspends hyoid from base of skull.
• Other ligamentous membranes
connect hyoid bone to
thyroid cartilage, thyroid cartilage to
cricoid cartilage, and cricoid cartilage to
upper tracheal ring.