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105 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How do humans produce sound?
Use of organs that do not have primary biological function of speech production. 1. force to set object into vibration. 2. object elastic enough to vibrate 3. medium that is able to propagate a sound wave.
Production of sound: force
provided by respiration
Production of sound: vibrating obj
"flow of air through the glottis, complemented by the layered structure of the vocal folds, wich produce a mucosal wave. "
Biologic function of larynx
protect the lungs
biologic function of respiration
gas exchange oxygen to co2
Larynx and respiration
"superior continuation of respiratiory passage, sits on top of trachea, cartilaginous (one bone) system linked by membranes"
divided into: vestibule; ventriclee of morgagni and inferior division
Laryx Vestibule
"vestibule, superior subdivision, extends from superior opeing to larylnx to ventricricular/false folds"
Larynx Ventricle of Morgagni
extends from fentricular folds to the true vocal folds
larynx inferior division
from vocal folds to trachea
Larynx framwork
"9 cartilages and one bone. All cartilage (except epiglottis) is hyaline cartilage. Epiglottis is elastic. Cartilages are connected by ligaments, one bone is hyoid bone"
Hyoid bone
"not attached to any other bone, shped like horseshoe, larynx is suspended from this bone, Exernal (extrinsic) laryngeal muscles are attached to it, serves as support for tongue and larynx."
Thyroid cartilage
largest cartilage of larnx. Two laminae (surfaces) join anteriorly to form an angle (angle of thyroid/adams apple). In men the thyroid angle is more acute resulting in a more prominent Adam's Apple.
posterior border of each lamin extend upwrd to form hornlike structures. Attaching indirectly to the hyoid. Inferiorly the cornua continues and attaches to the posterior aspect of the criicoid arch.
Cricoid cartilage
"shaped like a signet ring, narrow convex ring anteriorly and posteriorly a large lamina forming the signet"
Arytenoid Cartilage
paired that rest on the superior border of the cricoid lamina. Shaped like pyramids. Apex curves posteriorly. Two processes. Vocal folds attach on one process and a muscle attaches on the other.
Arytenoid Cartilage
"can rock, slide and rotate"
Corniculate Cartilages
"two pyramidal shaped notules, loced on the apex of each arytenoid. FX: protect arytenoid"
rod shaped elastic cartilage found in posterior aryepiglottic folds to support that membrane. Highly variable insize and number among individuals
"leaf like structure bound by ligaments to thebase of the tongue, walls or pharynx and thyroid cartilage"
closes off the laryngeal airway and deflects the bolus of food posteriorly into the esophagus during swallowing. Once it was related to breathing by acting to seal the airway and prevent the intake of substance
Laryngeal membranes
"these are extrinsic memranes and ligaments that connect the laryngeal cartilages, hyoid bone and trachea. "
Thyrohyoid membrane
Thyrohyoid membrane connects the thyroid cartilage to the hyoid bone
conus elasticus membrane
anteriorly connects the cricoid cartilage to the thyroid cartilage
"considered a laryngeal muscle; supports larynx and entire neck region, part of respiration"
Kinetic theory of gasses
"small particles- random movement. Separated by a distance larger than their size. Perfectly elastic so they don't lose energy when the collide. There is a transfer of energy between molocules that produces heat…that can predict motion with pressure, volume and temperature"
Boyles Law
"Given a constant temperature, increasing the volume of a chamber that contains gas Decreased pressure. Pressure is Force/Area F/A As area Increases, pressure, Decreases Indirect relationship. BUT as Pressure Increases, Force Increase Direct Relationship"
Atmospheric Pressure
Pressure exerted on the earths surface by the atmosphere. Function of temperature and altitude. Sea level 1Kg per cm and equal inside body so you aren't squished.
How do we breathe
"Thorax, cavity containing lungs, changes size. When it Increases, pressure in the lungs Decreases. If pressure in the loungs goes below atmospheric pressure, air rushes in the lungs to equalize internal pressure. "
mmost of the work of inspiration is performed by the diaphram (75%) and 25% is performed by the External Intercostals. Accessory muscles help to maintain posture to allow inspiriation.
Expiration is mainly a relaxation of the diaphram and the exterior intercostals PLUS the natural elasticity of the lungs Decreases the size of the thorax and INcreases Intrathoracic pressure
Elements of the respiratory tract
"Oral cavity, Nasal Cavity, Larynx, Pharynx, Trachea, Lungs, bronchi"
Job of respiratory tract
to conduct air into the areas of the lungs where it can be absorbed by the blood. . It is also the tract by which carbon-dioxide laden air exhausts into the external environment. It's primary function is NOT speech.
cartilaginous system linked by membranes. Valve calle dglottis that keeps foreign matter from entering the lungs-- aspiration.. Foreign matter in the lungs leads to pneumonia.
Hyaline cartilaginous rings connect by mucosus fibro-elastic membranes. Makes the trachea both rigid and flexible -- rigid so it wont collapse and flexible so that our necks can bend.
the trachea brances off into the bronchial tree. This tree continues to divide into smaller and smaller segments until it terminates in many alveolar sacs. These sacs are surrounded by capillaries. Oxygen and carbon dioxide rapidly diffuse through the epithelial tissue surrounding the two structures.
"two conical masses of spongy tissue composed of the bronchi and air sacs. The right lung is segmented into superior, middle and inferior lobe. The left lung, which makes room for the heart is divided into superior and inferior lobe."
Pleural Lining
"the lobes of the lung are enveloped in a thin serosal (wet) membrane called the visceral pleura. The thoracic cavity is lined with the same type of membrane called the parietal pleura. The serous membranes are in contact with each other, but slilghtly separaged by a thin layer of serous (watery glycoprotein) fluid."
Serous fluid is
maintains surface tension between the pleural surfaces (resisting separation of visceral and pariietal layers) and prevents friction when the thorax expands and the lung expands with it. Potential Space between pleura can be affected by diseases (pleurisy) which increases the fluid and results in a reduction in lung capacity.
The bony Thorax
provides a framework for respiration and protects the vital organs encased in the thorax.
Bony thorax includes
"vertebral column, rib cage and sternum."
Vertebral Column
"32 individual vertebrae arranged in the cervical, throacic, and lumbar regions; the sacral and coccygeal vertebrae are fused. They form a diathrodial or synovial joint. Several natural curves in the column due to the posture, walking and weight bearing function of this structure."
Cervical Vertebrae
Seven relatively small vertebrae that supprt and move the head and neck. Most superior is ring shaped and called the atlas (C1) -- (from mythology-atlas holding the world with his shoulders) C2 is called the axis. The dens of c2 projects into the anterior part of c1 forming a pivot joint that allows c1 to rotate almost 90 degrees . no movement
Joints of C3-C7
permit a remarkable degree of flexion and extension … yes movement
remarkable for prominent spinous process
vertebral arteries pass through the formen of the transverse process of this area.
Thoratic Vertebrae
"12 -- Characterized by long, slender spinous process, heart shaped bodies and nearly vertically oriented facets ( places that act as fasceners) artiulate with the 12 ribs"
Ribs and Thoratic Vertebrae
Each rib forms a synovial joint with the demifacets of its thoracic vertebrae…i.e. rib1 and T1 and a sinle facet on the transverse process of the rib below…i.e. rib 1 and T2
Lumbar Vertebrae
"5 lumbar vertebrae are the most massive of the vertebrae with thick processed that all allow attachment of numerous ligaments, muscles and tendons"
At L1
Spinal cord terminates and forms the cauda equina (horse's tail) that are nerve roots.
5 fused vertebrae-- invertebral discs are largely replaced by bone.
Coccyx (kak sics)
2-4 tiny individual or partly fused rudimentary vertebrae
Ribs 1-7
articulate directly with the sternum and are called true ribs
ribs 8-10
articulate indirectly with the sternum via cartilages FALSE RIBS
ribs 11-12
end in the muscular abdominal wall. Floating ribs
Space between ribs
intercostal space
Intercostal space
"contains three layers of muscle, intercostal vessels and nerves"
Collective rib movement
accounts for 25% of respiratory effort
"2 parts, superior is called manabrium and the larger inferior part is called the body"
Two parts of the sternum form
fibrocartilagino joint that makes subtle hinge-like movements during respiration.
True ribs are attached to the
sernum via costal cartilage
Sternocostal joints are
synovial joints
The ribs form what kind of joints
"synovial joints at the vertebrae and sternal articulations, like a handle of a bucket"
arched musculotendinous tructure consiting of muscle fibers which arch upward and become continuous with a cetnral tendon.
Action of the diaphram
"completely seperates the sbdominal and thoracic cavities ( with holes and hiatuses for the esophagus, the vena cav and the abdominal aorta)"
Xiphoid Process of the sternum
is the anterior attachment of the diaphram
Diaphram lateral attachment
inner borders of ribs 7-12 and costal cartilage.
Posterior attachment of diaphram
made with corpus (body) of L1 through L4 and dthe transverse process of L1
Diaphram innervation
"sensory and motor the phrentic nerve, bilateral originates at the cervical plexus (group of nerves that serve one purpose)"
phrentic nerve
"goes into the mediastinal space on the left and right of the heart, divid and one branches to innervate the superior surface of the diaphram and the other branches to innervate the inferior potion."
Diaphram accounts for
75% of inspiration
Accessory muscles of inspiration
"External Intercostals, "
External Intercostals
External intercostals: O: lower surface each rib (not 12) down and medially (inward); insertion: upper surface of the rib below; Innervation: anterior division of the 12 pairs of spinal thoracic nerves FX: elevate rib cage
Internal Interocstals
Force Expiration: Origin: inferior margin of each rib (not #1) Is: suprior surface of rib below; IN 12 prs spinal thoracic nerves
Levatar Costarum
elevate ribcage in inspiration
Serratus Posterior Superior
elevate ribcage in inspiration
"when both contracted, ribcage is lelevated. Clavicular breathing produced."
"Scaleni Anterior, medial and posterior"
stabilze sternum and true ribs in inspiration
Innermost intercostals
Deepest of All! parallel to internal intercostals -- help pull ribcage down. Provide spacing for the ribs and and protection. Assist in forced expiration
Expiration(quiet breathing)
process of relaxing: natural position of the diaphram is elevated and the elasticity of the costal cartilage returns ribs to natural position
Forced Expiration
When we just want more force! Using internal intercostals to pull ribs down making it smaller AND along with external intercostals and innermost intercostals
Linea Alba
provides structure between xiphoid process of the sternum an pubic symphysis for muscles to attach at the anterior portion of the body. Tendinous body. White line
linea semilunaris (half moon)
paired structures made of same material
Transverse abdominus
"deepest anterior abdominal muscle -- trunk rotation, lifting and pushing. Can decrease volume of thoracic cavity by pushing contents of abdomen up (hence reduciing size of abdominal cavity)"
Internal oblique
"origin: Inguinal ligmament of the iliac crest-- fans out. Function, rotation of trunk and can push diaphragm up and decrease the size of thoracic cavity."
External Oblique
most superficial : Trunk flexion and rotation. Can force abdominal contents up.
Rectus Abdominus
"""six pack"" Function: bending trunk like a sit up. Can increase abdominal space by pushing diaphragm up and decreasing size of thoracic cavity."
Quadratus Lumborum
On dorsal aspect of the abdominal wall behind abdominal contents. Function: Lateral bending. Can fix abdominal wall to support abdominal compression.
Passive Respiration
"During inspiration, use of diaphragm with minimal help from accessory muscles. Contraction is unconscious. Relaxing: all muscles return to their resting position"
Conscious control of diaphragm
"Holding breath, lifting, defecating, child birth and speech"
Forced Expiration
"When we exert ourselves (physical or loud yelling, speech). Use all muscles of INSPIRATION AND EXPIRATION.. Posture is important!"
Measures flow of respiration
"spirometer -- device filled with water, recorder, patient blows into tube and hight of the floating drum is recorded"
Total Lung Capacity
"TLC 5100 cc ( about 2,000cc in a 2 liter soda bottle) this is the max amount of air a human can get into healthy lungs."
Vital Capacity VC
"Maximum amount of air that can be inspired after MAXIMUM forced exhalation (blow out as hard as you can and breathe in as hard as you can) no matter how hard you try you cannot get all the air out of your lungs (attached to thoracic cavity) visceral pleural VC=4,0000cc"
Inspiratory capacity
"Amount of air that can be inhaled (inspired) after a passive exhalation -- diaphram relaxing and ribs move back into position 3,000cc"
Functional Residual Capacity
"amount of air left after a passive exhalation FRC= 2,000cc"
"TLC 5100 cc ( about 2,000cc in a 2 liter soda bottle) this is the max amount of air a human can get into healthy lungs."
Tidal Volume
amount of air your breate in and out during passive respiration TV=450cc (1/4 of a 2 liter soda bottle)
Inspiratory Reserve Vollume
amount you can inhale after a passive inspiration; breathe in andout a few timesquickly and hold it and see how much more you can get in your lungs… usually about 2475 cc expiratory reserve volume is oppostie
residual volume
"amount of air left in lungs after maximum expiration. (lungs in adult always streateched -- smaller than thoracic cavity and surface tension between visceral and parietal pleura keep lungs slightly inflated at all times. RV: 1,1000cc"
Dead Air space
"air in conducting cavities (trachea, bronchi, mouth and pharynx) about 150cc counted as part of residual voume"
subglottal (below vocal folds) pressure
minimum pressure needed to move vocal folds as measured on the spirometer is 3-5 cm of H20
Conversational speech
spirometer needs to measure 7-10 cm of h20 sustained pressure with a quick burst of pressure change for intensity (stress) and pitch changes.
Normal respiration
"during normal respiration, 40% of cycle in inhalation and 60% is exhalation. We can only speak on exhalation s this would be 6 seconds of speech followed by 4 sec of silence ."
Checking action
During speech we can change the cycle to 10% inspiration and 90% expiration. WE impede the flow of air out by using the muscles of inspiration (diaphragm) and maintain the flow and pressure below vocal folds we can further lengthen expiratory time when we get ro resting lung volume by using the muscles of expiration (abdominal muscles) so we can speak on expiratory reserve volume.