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23 Cards in this Set

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Parenteral Administration includes?
any route of administration except those listed under Enteral Administration.
Intravenous Administration of a drug may be made by injection or infusion of drug solution.
A drug can be injected in which way?
a (relatively) concentrated form, in a relatively small volume (<10ml) using a syringe
OR
A drug can be also infused in a (relatively) dilute form, continuously over many hours (or longer) using a so called "iv drip".
What Intravenous Administration method is best if the drug is to be applied only once or is applied multiple times with relatively large time intervals between each administration.?
Injection ~~ a (relatively) concentrated form, in a relatively small volume (<10ml) using a syringe.
What Administration method is best if continuous application is required (perhaps to maintain a continuous effect) or if concentrated solutions of the drug may be an irritant at the site of injection or within blood vessels, or if the drug is eliminated (i.e., removed) from the body (by metabolism and excretion) extremely rapidly.
Intravenous
Drugs may also be injected intravenously through a peripheral indwelling?
central catheter or PIC catheter.
The PIC catheter is?
inserted through the skin into a vein and pushed up the vein so that drug enters the vein close to the heart; the end of the catheter is accessible from the skin so that drug administration by injection from a syringe through the catheter can be made repeatedly without repeated damage to the skin which occurs without an indwelling catheter.
Drugs administered intravenously will be quickly directed to?
all tissues and organs of the body (the heart and lungs being the first organs to which the drug will be delivered) without the need for movement of the drug from the point of administration into the blood. Such rapid delivery is beneficial for therapeutic effects but is also potentially problematic regarding undesired side effects.
What is Intramuscular Administration by injection of drug?
a (relatively) concentrated form in a relatively small volume (<10ml) is performed using a syringe.
What administration by injection if the drug is to be applied only once or is applied multiple times with relatively large time intervals between each application.
Drug administered by intramuscular injection can have effects at?
the site of injection but will also be absorbed into the plasma and be directed to all tissues and organs within the body where it may have effects
What is Subcutaneous Administration of a drug?
may be made using a syringe (<2ml) or by implantation of a capsule made from silastic (plastic) tubing.
Subcutaneous injection is suitable for administration of drug in?
a small volumes of liquid.
Drug administered by subcutaneous injection can have effects at?
the site of injection but will also be absorbed into the plasma and be directed to all tissues and organs within the body where it may have effects.
Implantation of a drug-containing capsule in subcutaneous administration allows for?
slow release of the drug from the capsule into the surrounding tissue so that drug effects can last months or years.
Drugs administered subcutaneously can have effects at?
the site of injection but will also be absorbed into the plasma and be directed to all tissues and organs within the body where it may have effects.
Topical Administration with Local Effect includes?
a number of methods to apply a liquid, ointment, or cream form of the drug to a single site on the surface of the body.
Drugs applied in this way are usually designed to have their effect at the site of application although (therapeutically) unnecessary and potentially side effect-resulting absorption into the systemic circulation will occur.
Topical Administration with Local Effect
Sites for topical administration with local effect include?
the eye, nasal passage, mouth, skin, and vagina.
"Cutaneous" Administration with Distant Effect for some drugs permits?
slow absorption of the drug into the systemic circulation from the site of administration with delivery of the drug to tissues and organs throughout the body.
Sites for topical application with distant effect include?
the skin ("patch" for delivery of nicotine, contraceptive drugs and others).
Inhalation Administration allows drugs to administered as?
a spray/mist or a gaseous component of inspired air.
Administration in this way allows the drug to be targeted to the bronchial system within the lung (as with some anti-asthmatic and decongestant drugs).
Inhalation administration
However, the potential for drugs applied in Inhalation administration to cross into?
the pulmonary circulation also allows drugs targeting other tissues or organs in the body to administered in this way (as with inhalant general anesthetics).
Intraspinal Administration of a drug - "spinal" or epidural" injection - allows the drug to be targeted to?
the nerves in the spinal column.
One advantage of Intraspinal Administration is?
this route of administration when the target of drug action is within the spine is that, although the amount of drug injected into the spine is sufficient for the desired therapeutic effect, the amount of drug passing from the spine to the plasma will be small so that undesirable effects of the drug will be minimized