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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
18.What does QI stand for? And how does it affect quality of patient care?
Quality Improvement, Identifies and minimizes and situations that pose risks to patient and employees by developing standards and regulations.
19.What does JCAHO stand for? What is JCAHO purpose?
? Joint Omission on Accreditation of Health Care Organization. It establishing standards for the operation of hospitals and other health related facilities and services.
20.List other Regulatory Agencies.
a.CAP- College of American Pathologists
b.ASCP- American society for Clinical Pathology
c.CLSI-Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute
d.NAACLS-National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Science
21.What does QA stand for? And how does it apply to Phlebotomy?
a.Quality Assurance- specific guidelines phlebotomist should strictly adhere to.
b.Indicators-measurable, well defined, objective, specific, and clearly related to an important aspect of care.
c.Threshold valves-Level of acceptable practice
d.Process and outcomes-Number of times patient specimen was redrawn because the improper tube was used.
e.Quality control-Procedure a Phlebotomist must meet certain standards at all times.
22.List areas of Phlebotomy subject to Quality Assessment. Explain the significant.
a.Identification-Must important to ensure correct patient identification.
b.Puncture devices- Don’t use if seal is broken, inspect quickly before using for patient safety.
c.Evacuated tubes- Don’t use outdated tubes. Can affect outcome of sample.
d.Labeling-Must be exact or specimen will be discarded
e.Technique-Taught by professionals who understands the importance of national standards.
f.Collection priorities-How to recognize which specimen request is the most critical.
g.Delta checks-Helps ensure quality in testing. Compares current and previous tests.
23.What is the importance of Documentation?
It provides information for evaluating and monitoring outcomes used in institutional QI. Can be used for legal documents.
24.Why are medical records important?
It is a chronologic documentation of a patients care. Legal document.
25.List the various types of manuals found in the laboratory, and significance.
a.Procedure manual- States the policies and procedures that apply to each test of practice performed in the laboratory.
b.Safety manual- Contains procedures related to fires, radiation safety, exposure plans, disaster plans and how to handle hazardous materials.
c.Infection control procedure- outlines decontamination procedures, precautions when handling specimens, and how to handle accidental contamination
d.QA forms-show documentation on all quality checks and other incident/ occurrence report forms.
26.Define “risk management”.

This department focuses on what? Internal process
identifies and minimizies situations that pose risk to patients and employees.
27.What is “Tort” based on? Wrongful act. List the name and definition of each.
a.Assault- Act or threat causing fear of battery
b.Battery- Intentional harmful or offensive touching without consent
c.Fraud- Deceitful practice or false portrayal of fact by words without consent.
d.Invasion of privacy- Violation of one’s right to be left alone
e.Breach of confidentiality- Failure to keep privileged medical information private
f.Malpractice- Type of negligence committed by a professional with professional training.
g.Negligence- Failure to exercise care that is good sense to ordinary people.
28.Name and explain the various “Patient Consent”.
a.Informed consent- implies voluntary or competent permission, give adequate information, needs patient permission.
b.Expressed consent- Verbal or written consent, client must know the good and bad about procedure.
c.Implied consent- In emergency, implied without verbal or written. (CPR)
d.HIV consent- client must be advised of test and procedure, how test will be used, must have consent before procedure.
e.Consent for minors- Parental or guardian consent is required
f.Refusal of consent- Constitutional right to refuse procedure
29. definition of an “infection”-
A condition that results when a microbe is able to invade the body, multiply, and cause injurious effects or disease.
30.List the 4 “microbes”.
Bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses
31.Explain the difference between “Pathogenic” and “nonpathogenic”.
Pathogenic- Capable of causing disease; Nonpathogenic- Not capable of causing disease
32.What is a “communicable Disease”?
Able to spread from person to person
33.What does “CDC” stand for also explain the purpose this organization.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention- CDC develops guidelines and recommends safety precautions to protect healthcare workers and others from infection.
34.What is a “Nonsocomial Infection”?
Percentage of patient’s, and type of infection. Is an infection acquired in a healthcare facility, 5 percent of patients acquire a nonsocomial infection. Most common is a urinary tract infection.
35.List and explain the 6 links to “Chain of Infection”.
a.Infectious agent- causative agent, pathogenic microbe responsible for causing in infection.
b.Reservoir-Place where microbe can survive, grow, and multiply
c.Exit pathways- A way an infectious agent is able to leave a reservoir host.
d.Means of transmission- Airborne, contact, droplet, vector, vehicle
e.Entry pathway- How agent enters a host.
f.Susceptible host- Someone with decreased ability to resist infection.
36.What is a “Causative Agent”?
Pathogenic microbe responsible for causing an infection.
38.Who is a “Susceptible Host”
Newborns, elderly, diseased person, person taking antibiotics, and immunosuppressant drugs
40.Name one of the most important means of preventing the spreading of an infection.
Hand hygiene
41.What does “PPE” Stand for? List the types of PPE’s putting on, taking off. Personal Protective Equipment;
putting on- gown, mask, gloves; taking off gloves, mask, gown
42.What is the difference between “Protective” and “Reverse” Isolation?
Protective- we are afraid of the patient, patient with and contagious infection; Reverse- patient is afraid of us, patient with 3rd degree burns.
43.What does “UP” stand for and explain its significance.
Universal precautions, blood and certain body fluids of all individuals were considered potentially infectious. Focuses on prevention of patient-to-personal transmission.
44.What does “BSI” stand for and explain its significance.
Body Substance Isolation- gloves must be worn when in contact with any moist body substances.
45.What is the difference between “Standard” and “Transmission-Based” Precautions?
Standard Precautions- Precautions to use in caring for all patients regardless of diagnosis or presumed infectious status. Transmission Based- Precautions to use for patients with either suspected or known infection with certain pathogens transmitted by airborne, droplet, or contact routes.
46.What does “OSHA” stand for and explain the purpose of the administration
Occupational Safety and Health Administration- U.S government agency that mandates and enforces safe working conditions for employs.
47.What does “Biohazard” mean?
Any material or substance harmful to health
48. List the most common biohazard exposure routes. Give example of each.
a.Airborne-Inhaled when splashes or aerosols are generated
b.Ingestion-Forget to sanitize hands before handling food
c.Non intact skin- Enters body through skin breaks
d.Percutaneous- Through the skin; accidental needle stick injury
e.Permucosal-Through mucous membrane like mouth and nose
49.What does “BBP” stand for?
Bloodborne Pathogen
50.List the various BBP’s and the symptoms of each BBP. Name of BBP; Symptoms of BBP
a.HBV-Flu like
b.HCV-Flu like
c.HIV- Flu like
d.CMV- Flu like
e.Syphilis –Discharge, UTI
f.Malaria- Fever
g.Relapsing - Fever
h.Creutzfeldt- Jakob- Fever
51.List the steps to “Exposure Incident Procedure” Plan.
a.Needlestick or shop injury- remove object, wash wound for 30 seconds
b.Mucous membrane exposure- Flush site for minimum 10 min
c.Report incident to the immediate supervisor
d.Report directly to a licensed healthcare provider for a medical evaluation
52.What is the disinfectant required by OSHA? And the dilution?
1:10 bleach solution or other Environmental protection agency approved disinfectant
53.Name the guidelines for “Electrical Safety”
a.Avoid the use of extension cords
b.Do not overload electrical circuits
c.Inspect cords and plugs for breaks and fraying
d.Unplug equipment when servicing
e.nplug equipment that has had liquid spilled on it
f.Unplug and do not use equipment that is malfunctioning
g.Do not attempt to make repairs to equipment if you are not trained to do so
h.Do not handle electrical equipment with wet hands or standing on wet floor
i.Know the location of the circuit breaker box
j.Do not touch electrical equipment in patients rooms
54.Name the guidelines for “Fire Safety”
a.Do pull the nearest fire alarm
b.Do call the fire departmetn
c.Do attempt to extinguish a small fire
d.Do close all doors and windows if leaving the area
e.Do smother the fire with a fire blanket
f.Do crawl to nearest exit if there is heavy smoke
g.Don’t panic
h.Don’t run
i.Don’t use elevators
55.List principles involving “Radiation” exposure.
Distance, Shielding, and Time
56.Name the guidelines for “Chemical Safety”.
a.Always wear PPE clothing
b.always use proper chemical cleanup material when cleaning chemical spills
c.never store chemicals above eye level
d.never add water to acid
e.never indiscriminately mix chemicals together
f.never store chemicals in unlabeled containers
g.never pour chemicals into dirty containers
h.never use chemicals in ways other than intended use
57.What does “MSDS” mean? Explain the importance of this information.
Material safety data sheets- contains general information as well as precautionary and emergency information for the product.
58.What is the procedure for “External Hemorrhage”?
Firmly apply direct pressure to the wound until bleeding stops.
59.What is the procedure for a patient demonstrating “Shock” symptoms?
Maintain an open airway, call for assistance, keep victim lying down with head lower than rest of body, control bleeding or other cause for shock, and keep warm.
60.What does “CPR” stand for? Cardiopulmonary resuscitation List the procedures.
a. Rescue breath
b. Chest compression landmark to center of chest
c. Chest compressions 30:2
d. Chest compression 100 compressions per minute
e. Automatic external defibrillator (AED) 1 shock immediately followed by 5 cycles CPR
61.List 6 views to ‘Personal Wellness’-
Personal hygiene, proper nutrition, rest, exercise, back protection, stress management.
Arterial blood gasses
Acquired mmunodeficiency syndrome
Blood urea nitrogen
• Bx-
• Ca-
Complete blood count
Coronary care unit
• CK-
Creatine kinase
• CPR-
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
• Hct-
• HIV-
- Human immunodefiency virus
• Hgb-
• hx-
• IV-
• K+-
• LDL-
-Low density lipoprotein
• lymphs-
• lytes-
• Mg-
• Diff-
Differential count of white blood cells
Date of birth
• Dx-
• ECG-
• ESR-
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
• FBS-
fasting blood sugar
fever of unknown origin
Glucose tolerance test
• NPO-
nothing by mouth
• OR-
operating room
• PCO2-
pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood
• PKU-
pheny l keton uria
• PP-
after meal
• PT-
prothrombin time
Activated partial thromboplastin time