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### 7 Cards in this Set

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 auxiliary assumptions hypothesis rarely deductively imply predictions all by themselves; must conjoin auxiliary assumptions A to a hypothesis H to get H to deductively imply an observational prediction O --auxiliary assumptions must be checkable independent of the hypothesis under test (must be able to prove assumptions without knowing if O is already true) Examples of auxiliary assumptions A1: If there is a God, there will be living things in the world and they will be perfectly adapted to their environments A2: If there is a God, there will be no living things A3: If there is a God, there will be no living things in the world, but they will not be perfectly adapted to their environments --The hypothesis that there is a God predicts something we can check by making observations diagram of direct testability a.)If H, then O b.)O Therefore, H e.g. a.)If the burner is hot, my hand feels pain b.) my hand feels pain Therefore, the burner is hot -abductive argument a.) If H, then O b.) Not O Therefore, not H = deductive argument diagram of indirect testability a.) If [H is true, and A1, A2, A3...] then O b.) O Therefore, then H and A1, A2... a.)If [H and A1, A2...], then O b.) Not O Therefore, not the case that [H and A1, A2...] expected utility Pascal's Wager: the expected utility of an action is the average payoff you would recieve, if you performed the action again and again; relates to desicion theory of trying to maximize expected utility through your actions e.g. E.U of buying lottery ticket -(\$1)(51/52)+(\$999999)(1/52) = \$19230 Wager Argument People should believe in God because of prudential reasoning (it's to the person's benefit to believe) 1.)Believe that God exists and God exists = GREAT 2.)Believe that God exists and God doesn't = Slightly meh 3.)Don't believe and he doesn't = Just fine 4.) Don't believe and he does exist = INFINETLY BAD *The final outcome of believing is better than the outcome of not believing Problem of Evil What is the definition of evil? What is too much evil? (the right amount?) -responses: free will (which God doesn't meddle w/free will