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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the branch of philosophy that answers questions such as ;What is knowledge??
Theory of being ;the branch of philosphy pursuing such questions as:What is Real?What is the difference between appearance and reality?Whatis the relation between mind and body?Are numbers real???
The branch of philosophy that studies the structure of valid inference:a purely formal discipline.interested in the structure of argument rather than the content.
Moral values ;The study of duty
The study of social institutions_____government.
Political and social philosophy
The study of beauty --Sensations
A belief proposition or argument is said to be a __________if its truth or falsity can be established only thru observation.Classical empericism was an attempt to show that all significant knowledge about the world is based on _______truths
a posteriori
A term in ancient Greek philosophy usually translated as "virtue";though sometimes as excellence or quality.
An idea present at birth.
innate knowledge
A belief,proposition,or argument is said to be ____________ if its truth or falsity can be established independently of observation.Classical rationalism was an attempt to show that all significant knowledge about the world is based on ________truths, which most of the rationalist associate with innate ideas.
a priori
Usually associated with the philosophies of Plato or Aristotle.for Plato everything that exists in the physical or conceptual world is in some way dependent upon__________.
The epistemological view that true knowledge is derived primarily from reason.In most versions this material takes the form of innate ideas,(Descartes)
The only thing that doesn't change is change.
One nameless element the "Indeterminate"
Everything explained by numbers.
Catholic scientist;Rationalism;Analytic geometry;Earth not the center.
Rene Descartes
Descarte's dought;Evil genius;dreaming, Doubt Everything till reason found not to.
Methological doubt
Independent of observation
Only by direct observation
The epistemological view that true knowledge is derived primarily from sense experience.For these philosophers,,all significant knowledge is a posteriori.(Locke, Berkeley and Hume),all denied the existance of innate ideas.(blank slate)
The ontological view that only one entity exists or one kind of entity exists.
The ontological view that reality is composed of a multiplicity of things of different kinds of things and that this multiplicity cannot be reduced to one or two categories.
The study of the evidence for the existence of purpose,design,and intentionality in both human and nonhuman domains.Goals,purposes,or intentions.Contrast with causal explanations
Latin for blank slate.Epericism from John Locke forward assumed that the mind is a __________ at birth and that all knowledge muxty be inscribed on that blank slate by experience.
tabula rasa
A principal of simplification derived trom the medieval philosopher William of _________,according to which if there are two competing theories ,both of which account for all the observable data, the simpler of the two is the preferable.
Ockham's razor
The epistemological view that concepts are generalized ideas existing only in the mind but that they are derived and abstracted by the mind from real similarities and distinctions in nature.
A __________ is that which is perceived immediately by any one of the senses prior to interpretation by the mind. _________ include the perceptions of color ,sounds ,tastes odors, tactile sensations,pleasures, and pains.Classical empiricism based itslf on the suppose foundation of _________
sense data
A proposition is a ___________.if it is in some way repetitive or redundant.For example.definitions are ___________ because their predicates are equivalents of the term being defined.
The theory according to which perception does not occur as the summation of a number of perceptual parts; rather,these perceptual parts themselves are derived grom the general perceptual field,which has properties that cannot be derived from any or all of the parts.
gesalt psychology
A state or perceptual confusion caused by the experience of sensations that are different from those anticipated.
cognitive dissonance
The ontological view that reality is composed of two kinds of beings, usually(as in Descartes)minds and bodies.
The ontological view that ,ultimately,every existing thing can be shown to be spiritual or mental(hence,a version of monism),usually associated in Western philosophy with Berkeley and Hegal.
Everything thing is in your consciense and can't be proved outside the mind.
The ontological view that reality can be shown to be material in nature"that minds are really brains"
Materialistic monism
The theory that only observable features of human or animal activity need be studied to provide an adequate scientific account of that activity.
A_________ is the mistake of taking a term or phrase tht belongs in one logical or grammatical category and erroneouslu placing it in another category and then drawing absurd conclusions from that miscategorization.
a category mistake
truth by definition
conceptual truth
redundant and repititious
Qualitative as compared to the quantitative
x causes y