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106 Cards in this Set

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What are the 2 views regarding the question of definability or undefinability of philosophy?
The first holds that philosophy can be defined while the other maintains that philosophy cannot be defined.
Definition is derived from the Latin word __-______ which means "to state the limits of" or "to enclose with in limits."
de-fenire
Generally, there are two classifications of definition, viz.: nominal (from the Latin world _________ meaning "having reference to a name") and real (from the Latin word ______ meaning "having reference to a thing or reality").
nominalis; realis
Nominal definition has two kinds, namely: ____________ and __________.
etymological; vernacular
Similarly, real definition also has two kinds, namely: _________ and _________.
intrinsic; extrinsic
In this light, both ____________ and __________ nominal definitions limit a thing from the standpoint of its name or term.
etymological; vernacular
How is an intrinsic definition broken down?
A. Essential: Genus & Species.
B. Descriptive: Properties & Accidents
How is an extrinsic definition broken down?
A. Origin
B. Cause
C. Purpose
…it must be made clear that the term philosophy owes its existence from __________.
Pythagoras
Etymologically, philosophy is derived from two Greek words ______ meaning "love" or "friendship" and ______ meaning "wisdom".
philia; sophia
Literally, __________ means love of wisdom.
philosophy
The Chinese understand ___-___ or __________ as the "study of wisdom."
Zhe-Xue; philosophy
Thus, for the Chinese, philosophy is the translation of words into ______ or the application of theory into ______.
action; praxis
Hence, for the _______, philosophy singles out a person to live on what he says.
Chinese
…the Hindus, too, have something to call their own. For them, philosophy is _______.
Darsana
_______ means seeing not only through the eyes but through the whole being of the one that sees.
Darsana
…philosophy for the ______ means seeing the whole of reality through a total advertence and involvement of the looker.
Hindus
The only distinction is that philosophy sees reality in the domain ______ alone while theology is the domain of _____ and ______.
reason; faith; reason
…we may say that the beginning of ________ is the end of __________, or where __________ ends, ________ begins.
theology; philosophy; philosophy; theology
In fact, before the Westerners started to philosophize (or engage in philosophy) the ______ and the _______ were already established enough in their philosophical thinking.
Hindus; Chinese
individual soul (Hindu)
Atman
universal soul (Hindu)
Brahman
Which group was interested in the following question: "Who am I?"
Hindus
Which group was interested in the following question: "What am I?"
Chinese
Way back in the 6th century B.C. lived a man named __________ who is acclaimed as the first philosopher (because he coined the term philosophy)
Pythagoras
______ wondered earlier than Pythagoras
Thales
_____ refers to anything that contributes to the production of any reality.
Cause
…while ______ refers to that which, in any manner, contributes to the explanation or understanding of any reality or thing.
reason
The cause of philosophy - not necessarily the ultimate cause - is ______ (______ in Greek).
wonder; thauma
__________ starts with wonder.
Philosophy
…in philosophy what matters is the ________, not the ______ - this is because _______ can become _________ themselves.
question; answer; answers; questions
What are the 6 benefits of philosophy as listed in Chapter 1?
1. Enables us to understand ourselves better; 2. Helps us understand others, our fellowmen; 3. Helps us understand other' way of thinking; 4. Helps us understand the world and our place and role in it; 5. Helps us understand the significance, meaning, value, and finality of human life; and 6. helps us know and understand God in his nature, essence, activities, and attributes.
What are the 4 disciplines of Philosophy?
Metaphysics
Epistemology
Logic
Ethics
None
Metaphysics is broken down into General and Special. Ontology falls under General Metaphysics. What are the 3 types of Special Metaphysics?
Cosmology
Theodicy
Psychology
None
…the Greek word ____ which means "after" (it does not mean "beyond" as commonly misconstrued).
meta
Per se, ___________ is a science that studies all beings in so far as they are beings.
metaphysics
The Greek word _____ means "talking," while the Greek word onto means "being." In Latin, however, the term onto means ______ which means "full of Being."
logia; plenum
Based on this undertaking, ________ is understood as a metaphysical study of all realities in so far as they exist.
ontology
This leads classic philosophers to divide _____ into three classifications, viz.:
1. Real; 2. Logical; and 3. Ideal.
A ____ _____ is understood as extra-mental or that whose existence is independent of the human mind.
real being
_______ _____ is one which is considered as intra-mental,…
Logical being
…, while _____ _____ is one which is purely intra-mental.
ideal being
Abstract entities are good examples of _______ beings like numbers, geometrical points, mathematical objects, letters in the alphabet, names of days and months, and time. All these do not have "real" existence in the outside world.
logical
Finally, examples of _____ or purely intra-mental beings are those whose existence lies only inside the human mind, like flying horse, blue or pink pieces of charcoal, golden mountain and the like.
ideal
This is why _________ is defined as a metaphysical science which studies the general nature of the world or the structure and history of the universe,…
cosmology
…, while ________ or _______ ________ is a metaphysical science which studies the nature, operations, and attributes of God or the study about God in the context of reason not of faith,…
theodicy; natural theology
..., and ________ __________ is a metaphysical science which treats of man's nature as a being endowed with reason and intellect which studies the rational metaphysics of the human soul.
rational psychology
When philosophy investigates knowledge and truth, it is called ____________.
epistemology
When philosophy studies correct processes of thinking, it is called _____.
logic
And when it studies the morality (goodness or badness) of human actions (conduct), it is called ______ or _____ __________.
ethics; moral philosophy
As a whole, __________ __ ___ is a course that delves into the origin of human life, the nature of human life, and the reality of human existence.
Philosophy of Man
One of these views is called the ____________ ____ (taught primarily by Dennis Dedirot) which maintains that the nature of man is good.
encyclopedic view
In _______ philosophy, the encyclopedic view is also maintained by Kong Zi (whose Latinized name is _________)...
Chinese; Confucius
Another view commonly called the ________ ____ (taught by Adam Smith and his adherents) sees man as one who is destined to be happy in the context of material abundance.
economic view
To Sir Karl Popper, man lives in three worlds, to wit: the ________ world (bodily existence), the ________ world (which is the locus of ideas, thoughts, and emotions), and the ______ world (which pertains to man's social relations or inter-subjectivity).
physical; internal; social
In scholastic philosophy, however, the view which is basically upheld is that man is a being, a creature whose destiny is to live in two worlds, viz.: the ________ world and the ________ or ________ world.
spiritual; physical; material
The Romans are perhaps the originators of the translation of the term man as ver which in turn gives birth to the word ______ (or that which is fitting for man).
virtue
Accordingly, the term ______ is derived from the Latin word ______ which means "that which lets something originate from itself."
nature; natura
It must be noted, however that the term ______ comes from another Latin word _____ which means "to be born" or "to originate."
natura; nasci
Human nature, however, can be further understood in a three-fold level (not facet of dimension since the constituents of human nature have equal importance among themselves), namely, _______ level, __________ level, and ___________ level.
somatic; behavioral; attitudinal
The _______ _____ refer to the body, substance, constitution, or stuff of man and secondarily (or accidentally) to bodily structure, color, etc. which are conditioned by culture and environment.
somatic level
The __________ _____ refers to the mode of acting of every man.
behavioral level
The ___________ _____ refers to the mental reaction of every man to a given stimulus or the position of every individual concerning his opinion, feeling, or mood.
attitudinal level
In general, the ancient Greek philosophers were cosmologists. They were too busy looking for the _______ or the basic and original stuff that makes the world, world.
urstuff
In fact, they (the ancient Greek philosophers) generally consider man as a _________ (obviously, with the whole universe or cosmos being the _________).
microcosm; microcosm
From the landscape of the West, scholars are one in saying that philosophy began in _____, ______.
Ionia, Greece
History has it that after the _____________ War (the war between Sparta and Athens; by the way, Sparta won) that lasted from 431 to 404 B.C. Greece gained momentum for peace.
Peloponnesian
______ (624-546 B.C.). Accordingly, ______ is a Phoenician by birth but he went to Melitus, Ionia to practice Philosophy.
Thales; Thales
Thales considered _____ as the urstuff.
water
__________ (585-525 B.C.). If Thales singled out water as the urstuff of the universe, his countryman, __________, preferred air to water.
Anaximenes; Anaximenes
__________ (540-475 B.C.). This philosopher is famous for his concept of the logos which to him explains the existence of things in the world.
Heraclitus
In his stance for the principle of change, Heraclitus believes that ____ makes the urstuff.
fire
___________ (610-547 B.C.). To this pundit, the world constituted of eternal and indestructible substances which he calls the apeiron or "the boundless."
Anaximander
Being, more or less, the first to invoke the idea of _________, Anaximander gets the credit of being called the _____-____________.
evolution; proto-evolutionist
__________ (582-507 B.C.)…In this light, it is plausible that the ____________ are the true pioneers of the paradigm of mans as body and soul.
Pythagoras; Pythagoreans
This thought-construct (Pythagoreans) finds consonance with the belief in reincarnation, _______, which is prevalent in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Taoism, and other philosophical and religious systems in the East.
Samsara
__________ (490-421 B.C.)…__________ - the celebrated representative of the Sophists…says that "…man is the measure of all things, of all things…"
Protagoras; Protagoras
________: truth, knowledge, morality is relative
Sophists
________: truth is universal. No one does evil volitionally
Socrates
________ (470-399 B.C.). ________, the acclaimed greatest philosopher in Western civilization, maintains that man is a being who thinks and wills.
Socrates; Socrates
Man, for ________, should discover truth, the truth about good life, for it is in knowing the good life that man can act correctly.
Socrates
According to ________, knowledge and virtue (_____ in Greek) are not distinct from each other.
Socrates; arete
To ________, he who is wise is a man who has disciplined his soul to know what is right and does what he knows to be right in the actual life situation.
alethia (Greek)
truth
techne (Greek)
art
poiesis (Greek)
the way of knowing the truth
pronesis (Greek)
way of living
praxis (Greek)
way of doing or simply application of what one knows
______-_______ refers to the art or the way of knowing the truth
techne-poiesis
_________-______ means the way of living (in truth) and the way of doing (in the context of truth).
phronesis-praxis
For _____, the Ideal world is the ultimate reality since ideas or forms are eternal and immutable.
Plato
In Plato's view, the soul has three parts, namely, the ________, __________, and _________ parts.
rational; appetitive; spiritual
For Plato, it is the __________ part of the soul that drives man to experience thirst, hunger, and other physical wants.
appetitive
It is the _________ part of the soul that makes man assert and experience abomination and anger. (Plato)
spiritual
And it is the ________ part of the soul that enables man to think, to reflect, to draw conclusions, and to analyze.
rational
_________ (c.335-c.263 B.C.). If Plato has his Academy, _________ has his Lyceum.
Aristotle; Aristotle
Man is a rational animal. This is _________'s famous dictum of man.
Aristotle
Unlike his master, however, _________ maintains that there is no dichotomy between man's body and man's soul. Body and soul are in a state of unity.
Aristotle
hylemorphism (Greek, Aristotle)
the combination of body, as hyle, and soul as morpos
According to Aristotle, there are three kinds of soul, namely, __________, _________, and ________.
vegetative; sensitive; rational
______ (Zeno of Citium: c.335-c. 263 B.C.)...Zeno of Citium founded his own school and called it ____...
Stoics; Stoa
…the founder of Stoa is a _____ - referring to a group of philosophers who detest the pleasures of material possessions, health, and all the comforts that life may bring.
Cynics
…______ - the source of the term "_______" meaning insensitivity to the suffering of other people, or the state of one's utter submission to indifference.
Cynics; cynical
…Stoics are labeled as "___ ___________ ____." The attribution is fitting because the Stoics teach resignation and determinism.
the indifferent ones
In general, the Stoics teach that the soul is matter and that it has seven parts. What are they?
These parts are the five senses, the power of speech, and the power of reproduction.
…the ______ challenge man " to be a subject of the will of God and to the law of nature."
Stoics