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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Critical thinking?
the investigative process of resolving doubt through “the systematic evaluation and formulation of beliefs and statements by reasonable standards.”
Thinking involves?
*contemplation *evaluation
*imagination
Critical involves?
*analysis
*evaluation
Epistemology?
• The study of knowledge

•Distinction between belief (doubt?)/ knowledge

•Distinction between subjective/objective
Logic?
•Rules of inference contained in arguments
Deductive/ Inductive?
*true-structure of argument vs. uncertain or false-probability
Tenacity (wishful thinking)
*Peirce’s Methods
stick to what you believe, as long as you put it to practice
Authority
*Peirce’s Methods
higher figures could be wrong and make mistakes, always question
Intuition
*Peirce’s Methods
your feeling can be wrong
Science
*Peirce's Methods
strongest method, testable and fallable, explore everything like a scientist
Skeptical?
willing to question
Objective?
John is taller than Keanu
Subjective?
John is a better actor than Keanu
Premises?
statements that support claim
Conclusion?
premise for argument
Non-arguments
1) explanations (already known)
2) conditionals (if/then)
Argument?
premise(s) + conclusion
“Haunted Mind”
• Ghosts are in your mind
Francis Bacon
*philosopher 16th century
*believed we worshiped false idols- The IDOLS of the mind
1) “Idols of the Tribe”
(perception) barriers to the fact we are human (our natural error)

*ex: if there is a picture of a duck, but it could also be a rabbit (duck/rabbit)

-have to switch your perception (selective attention)
2) “Idols of the Cave”
(egocentrism) people are living like they are prisoners in a cave (remember the story of the cave)

*use our own bias to determine things (rationalization)-believe what we want
3) “Idols of the Marketplace"
limit our language in the marketplace (language)
Logic/ Rhetoric
*persuasion
Cognitive/Emotive
*Object with certain feelings
Euphemism/ Dysphemism
*Substitution of another word to put a positive spin on it
Vagueness
*Language that is unclear, vague
Ambiguity
*Semantic: more than 1 meaning

*Syntactic: grammar, structure of words
Statements:
1. I don’t know what state Meredith is in.
Headlines:
1. “College Graduates Blind Senior Citizen”
Arguments:
1. We shouldn’t hire peter, because our company has a policy against drug users ©, and I saw peter take aspirin.
*drug could be pharm. Or harmful WEAK ARGUMENT
4) “Idols of the Theater”
same event can be seen in two different ways (sociocentrism)
“Haunted World View"
*won’t understand other countries point of view
Subjective Relativism
*Different from one person and another individual

*“All is relative”-wrong
Social relativism
*Principle of tolerance- everybody is right
Skepticism
*Open-minded, always willing to question

*Clifford and Russel- religious skeptics
Deductive Argument
*Conclusion is necessary true, if the following premises are true
Deductive Argument
1.Mathematic arguments
2. Definition arguments
3.Categorical syllogism- 2 premises, 1 conclusion
4. Hypothetical Syllogism
5. Conditional arguments
6. Disjunctive Syllogism (either/or Syllogism)
Inductive Argument
*Given premises the conclusion is probably true (never certain)
Inductive Argument
1.Prediction argument
2.Analogy
3.Generalization
4.Statistics
5.Authority
6.Signs
7.Causal argument (always probable, never certain)
8.Science (probability)
9.Detective Work
Evaluation
Deductive

*All German are Europeans.
*All Berliners are Germans.
*All Berliners are European *VALID argument (sound)
Inductive
*The paper has been delivered by seven every day but two for the past 3 years.

*The paper will arrive by seven tomorrow.

*STRONG (highly probable), COGENT
- if low probability, (its WEAK)
Disjunctive Syllogism (Either/or) – (V)
*Either the battery is dead (P), or there is an ignition short (Q).

*The battery is not dead.

*Therefore there’s an ignition short.
Hypothetical Syllogism
*If you study (P), you will pass (Q). p->q ALWAYS VALID

*If you pass, you will graduate.

*If you study, then you will pass.
Modus Poneus (form is always VALID)
*Valid: If p then q (p->q) (sound-valid and premises are true)
*P
*Q. (affirming antecedent)

*If John is in Fullerton (antecedent), then he is in California.
*John is in Fullerton.
*John is in California. (affirming antecedent) ~p

NOT MODUS PONEUS ~q
*J is not in Full.
*J is not in CA. (denying antecedent- INVALID)
Modus Tollens
*Valid: If p then q.
*Not q .
*Not p.

*Invalid: If p then q.
(affirming consequent)

*If J is in F then J in *J not in Ca.
*J is not in F. (denying consequent)
Simple Statement:
Hawaii is a state.
Compound Statement:
(more than 1 simple statement)
If you study, then you will succeed.
(A)
I have Apples in my cupboard.
(~A) negation
I do not have Apples in my cupboard.
(A * B) conjunction
I have Apples and Bananas in my cupboard.
(OvP) disjunction
I have either Oranges or Peaches in my cupboard.
(C -> V) conditional
If it’s a Carrot, then it’s a Vegetable.
(V = D) biconditional or (V->D) * (D->V)
You eat Venison if and only if you eat Dear.
conjunction
~B *[R v(Q->S)]
disjunction
~(B * R)v(QQ->S)
negation
~[(B * R)v(Q->S)]
I do not have both Apples and Bananas.
~(A * B) see ~A v ~B
I have neither Oranges nor Peaches.
~(OvP) see ~O * ~P
If it is an Orange from my backyard, then it is either a Navel or Valencia.
O->(NvV)
Conditional:
If A, then B
A only if B
A implies B
B if A
A->B
Conditional:
A if B
B->A
A if and only if B
A=B
Conditional:
A is sufficient for B
B is necessary for A
A->B
Not either P or Q
~(PvQ)
Either not P or Q
~PvQ
Not both P an Q
~(P * Q)
Both not P and Q
~P * Q
P and if Q then R
P *(Q->R)
If P and Q then R
(P * Q) -> R