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14 Cards in this Set

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1. What is the method he uses to do this? Describe it.
Descartes uses the method of doubt. He doubts his own beliefs and opinions. Doubts the foundation of his opinions.
2. What does he initially assume to be the foundation of what he has thought in the past (even while he questions it)?
Descartes assumes that the senses are the foundation of what he thought in the past. He always thought that knowledge came from the senses.
3. In Meditation I, does he lay bare the foundation he is looking for? (Of his senses)
Yes, he exposed his senses to doubt.
4. In Meditation I, does he find any things that are more difficult to doubt than other things?
He doubts the foundation of the senses through dream scenario. This allowed him to doubt universals, colors, and spaces.
5. (See #4) Are the things that he finds sensible?
No
6. If they aren’t sensible, what are they? Give some examples.
They are known with his mind. For example, figure of extended things.
7. What is Descartes’ situation as Meditation II begins?
Everything seems completely doubtful to him. Even mathematics can be doubting. He has to find something certain.
8. Does Descartes find the foundation he is looking for? Is it something preexisting?
Yes, Descartes does find the foundation he is looking for; he finds out that he exists. In order to be deceived he has to exist. Yes it is something preexisting; he is an ego (mind), which stands for ‘I’.
9. Once he discovers this thing’s existence, what has he discovered?
That his ego (mind) exists. Nothing else except that.
10. So, according to Kierkegaard, what would naturally be the next question that he would ask?
He knows he exists; now he has to find out what he is.
11. Once he (Descartes) has established that he is a ‘thinking thing’ (res cogitans), what does he do?
Descartes thinks his mind can sense. He experiences sensation. He does not think that things he senses are necessarily real, but he knows from experience.
12. Once he finds everything that is included under ‘thinking thing’, what does he do?
He goes back to his own beliefs. Established everything that goes along with a thinking thing. Went back to believing that for example, the table is more real than his mind, when he did believe that his mind was more real than the table.
13. At this point, is the piece of wax a real piece of wax as far as he knows? (What is he, as far as he knows, at this point?)
No, Descartes does not think the piece of wax is real. It’s his mind that lets him see it’s a piece of wax, not his senses.
14. What is an extended thing? (Latin for ‘extended thing’ is ‘res exstensa’ For ‘thinking thing’ it’s res cogitans).
An extended thing is a thing that occupies space.